NanoString Technologies
NanoString Technologies Inc (Form: 424B5, Received: 05/31/2017 16:14:25)
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The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to these securities has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is effective. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and they are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to completion. Dated May 31, 2017

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-198465

PROSPECTUS Supplement
(To Prospectus Dated August 29, 2014)

2,750,000 Shares
LOGO_2017.JPG
NANOSTRING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
COMMON STOCK
We are offering 2,750,000 shares of our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “NSTG”. The last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Market on May 31, 2017 was $18.34 per share. We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and, as such, are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.
Investing in our common stock involves substantial risk. Please refer to the “ Risk Factors ” on page S-4 .
 
Per Share
Total
Public offering price
$
$
Underwriting discount and commissions (1)
$
$
Proceeds to us, before expenses
$
$
(1) See “Underwriting” for a description of compensation payable to the underwriter.
Delivery of the shares of common stock is expected to be made on or about        , 2017.
We have also granted the underwriter a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 412,500 shares of common stock, at the public offering price less the underwriting discount.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Baird

, 2017




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Prospectus Supplement

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This document is in two parts. The first part is the prospectus supplement, including the documents incorporated by reference, which describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus supplement, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. Before you invest, you should carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, all information incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the additional information described under “ Where You Can Find Additional Information ” on page S-40 of this prospectus supplement. These documents contain information that you should consider when making your investment decision. This prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in the accompanying prospectus. To the extent that any statement that we make in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with statements made in the accompanying prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference therein, the statements made in this prospectus supplement will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in the accompanying prospectus and such documents incorporated by reference therein.
Neither we nor the underwriter has authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement outside the United States. This prospectus supplement does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, as used in this prospectus supplement, the terms “NanoString,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to NanoString Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries. We use “NanoString,” “NanoString Technologies,” “nCounter,” “Molecules that Count,” “Prosigna,” “nCounter Elements,” “nCounter SPRINT ,” ‘Vantage 3D,” “3D Biology,” “Hyb & Seq,” and “PlexSet” and other marks as trademarks in the United States and other countries. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the other documents incorporated by reference contain references to our trademarks as well as third-party trademarks. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use of third-party trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other entity.

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information about us, this offering and information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, in the accompanying prospectus and in the documents we incorporated by reference. This summary is not complete and does not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Before making an investment decision, to fully understand this offering and its consequences to you, you should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement, the financial statements and related notes and the other information that we incorporate by reference herein, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K.
NanoString Technologies, Inc.
Overview
We develop, manufacture and sell robust, intuitive products that unlock scientifically valuable and clinically actionable biologic information from minute amounts of tissue. Our nCounter Analysis System directly profiles hundreds of molecules simultaneously using a novel barcoding technology that is powerful enough for use in research, yet simple enough for use in clinical laboratories worldwide. We market systems and related consumables to researchers in academic, government, and biopharmaceutical laboratories for use in understanding fundamental biology and the molecular basis of disease and to clinical laboratories and medical centers for diagnostic use. As of March 31, 2017, we have an installed base of approximately 510 systems, which our customers have used to publish over 1,550 peer-reviewed papers. As researchers using our systems discover new biologic insights to improve clinical decision-making, these discoveries can be translated and validated as diagnostic tests, either using our nCounter Elements reagents or, in certain situations, by developing in vitro diagnostic assays. For example, our first molecular diagnostic product is the Prosigna Breast Cancer Assay, or Prosigna, which provides an assessment of a patient’s risk of recurrence for breast cancer. In addition, we are collaborating with multiple biopharmaceutical companies to develop companion diagnostics, in vitro diagnostic tests to be used to identify which patients are most likely to respond to a particular therapeutic treatment.
Our nCounter Analysis System enables biologic analysis on a scale appropriate for pathway-based biology, the examination of networks of tens or hundreds of genes and proteins that act in concert to produce biologic functions or trigger certain diseases, by digitally quantifying the activity of up to 800 genes or proteins simultaneously in a single minute tissue sample. Our technology platform is enabled by a unique, proprietary optical barcoding chemistry only available to us. We offer a range of instruments to appeal to an array of potential customer types. Our nCounter SPRINT Profiler is designed to appeal to individual researchers running relatively smaller experiments. Our nCounter MAX is a higher throughput instrument with features appealing to larger core laboratories serving multiple researchers. Our nCounter Dx Analysis System instrument has been FDA 510(k) cleared together with Prosigna and is targeted toward clinical laboratories. All three instruments are capable of running our research consumable products and provide comparable, high-quality data. Our revolutionary new 3D Biology products enable researchers to measure combinations of gene expression, protein expression and gene mutations simultaneously from a single minute tissue sample.
Our technology and products address a fundamental challenge in cancer research. With more cancers being detected earlier, tumor samples are becoming smaller and smaller, while researchers and clinicians have a much greater appetite for information regarding the activity of genes and proteins. The sensitivity and precision of our novel barcoding chemistry allows the measurement of subtle changes in genomic and proteomic activity efficiently from minute samples of tissue. Furthermore, tumor samples are often stored in a format known as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, or FFPE, which complicates subsequent analysis of genetic material. Our chemistry is particularly compatible with FFPE, increasing its popularity among cancer researchers. The nCounter Analysis System is an easy-to-use and flexible solution that allows researchers to efficiently test hypotheses in a high throughput manner across thousands of different samples. As a result, the nCounter Analysis System is particularly useful for validating networks of genes and proteins that characterize and help predict disease states, such as cancer. Using the FLEX configuration of our nCounter Dx Analysis System, researchers also have the potential to translate their discoveries to the clinic as diagnostics on a single instrument system after receiving any necessary regulatory authorizations.

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Prosigna, our first molecular diagnostic test, is based on a collection of 50 genes known as the PAM50 gene signature, which was discovered by several of our research customers. Prosigna can provide a breast cancer patient and her physician with a subtype classification based on the fundamental biology of the patient’s tumor, as well as a prognostic score that predicts the probability of cancer recurrence over ten years. Physicians use Prosigna to help guide therapeutic decisions so that patients receive a therapeutic intervention only if it is clinically warranted. Prosigna is regulated as an in vitro diagnostic test and we distribute it as a kit for use on our nCounter Dx Analysis System in clinical laboratories. We expect that our future in vitro diagnostic products will be regulated and distributed in a similar manner. This is in contrast to most complex genomic tests, which are currently regulated as services and are usually offered only by a limited number of specialized laboratories.
We currently have two collaborations with biopharma companies for the development of companion diagnostic assays. In 2014, we initiated our first of these collaborations with Celgene Corporation, or Celgene, under which we are developing an in vitro diagnostic test to identify a subset of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, who are believed to be the most likely to benefit from treatment with Celgene’s drug REVLIMID, which is FDA approved for other indications. In February 2016, we expanded a pre-existing research collaboration with Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., or Merck, to develop and commercialize a novel diagnostic test to predict response to Merck’s anti-PD-1 therapy, KEYTRUDA, in multiple tumor types. We believe there are many other similar opportunities to collaborate with companies developing cancer drugs and we intend to pursue more of these collaborations.
We generated revenue of $18.1 million, $86.5 million, $62.7 million and $47.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017 , and for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, while incurring net losses of $18.9 million, $47.1 million, $45.6 million and $50.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017 , and for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated in Delaware in June 2003. Our principal executive offices are located at 530 Fairview Avenue N., Seattle, Washington 98109. Our telephone number is (206) 378-6266. Our website address is www.nanostring.com. Information contained on the website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, and should not be considered to be part of this prospectus supplement.

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THE OFFERING
Common stock offered
2,750,000 shares (1)
 
 
 
 
Common stock to be outstanding after the offering
24,434,011 shares (1)(2)
 
 
 
 
Underwriter's option to purchase additional shares
412,500 shares
 
 
 
 
Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $ million (or $ million if the underwriter exercises its option to purchase additional shares of our common stock in full), after deducting the underwriting discount and the estimated expenses of this offering. We plan to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes and working capital. Please see “ Use of Proceeds ” on page S-31 .
 
 
 
Risk factors
Investing in our common stock involves risks, including those described under the heading “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page S-4  of this prospectus supplement and on page 23 of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on May 5, 2017.
 
 
 
 
NASDAQ Global Market symbol
“NSTG”
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
Excludes up to 412,500 shares of our common stock that we may issue and sell upon the exercise of the underwriter's option to purchase additional shares.
(2)
Based on 21,684,011 shares outstanding on March 31, 2017 . Excludes as of that date:
5,410,976 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options outstanding, at a weighted-average exercise price of $13.06 per share;
272,356 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units;
871,536 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under stock-based compensation plans, including 536,023 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2013 Equity Incentive Plan, and any future automatic increase in shares reserved for issuance under such plan, and 335,513 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2013 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, and any future automatic increase in shares reserved for issuance under such plan; and
332,198 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding, at a weighted-average exercise price of $9.01 per share.

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RISK FACTORS
Investors should carefully consider the risks described below and in the filings incorporated by reference before deciding whether to invest in our securities. The risks described below and those described in the filings incorporated by reference are not the only ones we face. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements made throughout this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference as a result of different factors, including the risks we face described below and those described in the filings incorporated by reference.
Risks Related to our Business and Strategy
We have incurred losses since we were formed and expect to incur losses in the future. We cannot be certain that we will achieve or sustain profitability.
We have incurred losses since we were formed and expect to incur losses in the future. We incurred net losses of $18.9 million and $14.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. As of March 31, 2017, we had an accumulated deficit of $288.4 million. We expect that our losses will continue for at least the next several years as we will be required to invest significant additional funds toward ongoing development and commercialization of our technology. We also expect that our operating expenses will continue to increase as we grow our business, but there can be no assurance that our revenue and gross profit will increase sufficiently such that our net losses decline, or we attain profitability, in the future. Our ability to achieve or sustain profitability is based on numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the market acceptance of our products, future product development and our market penetration and margins. We may never be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability.
Our financial results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter which may adversely affect our stock price.
Investors should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and difficulties we expect to encounter in the new, uncertain and rapidly evolving markets in which we compete. Because these markets are new and evolving, predicting their future growth and size is difficult. We expect that our visibility into future sales of our products, including volumes, prices and product mix between instruments and consumables, and the amount and timing of payments pursuant to collaboration agreements will continue to be limited and could result in unexpected fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results.
Numerous other factors, many of which are outside our control, may cause or contribute to significant fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results. These fluctuations may make financial planning and forecasting difficult. For example, in the fourth quarter of 2016, total revenue did not meet expectations which adversely affected our stock price. In addition, these fluctuations may result in unanticipated changes in our available cash, which could negatively affect our business and prospects. Factors that may contribute to fluctuations in our operating results include many of the risks described in this section. In addition, one or more of such factors may cause our revenue or operating expenses in one period to be disproportionately higher or lower relative to the others. Our instruments involve a significant capital commitment by our customers and accordingly involve a lengthy sales cycle. We may expend significant effort in attempting to make a particular sale, which may be deferred by the customer or never occur. Accordingly, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful, and investors should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance. If such fluctuations occur or if our operating results deviate from our expectations or the expectations of securities analysts, our stock price may be adversely affected.
If we do not achieve, sustain or successfully manage our anticipated growth, our business and growth prospects will be harmed.
We have experienced significant revenue growth in a short period of time. We may not achieve similar growth rates in future periods. Investors should not rely on our operating results for any prior periods as an indication of our future operating performance. If we are unable to maintain adequate revenue growth, our financial results could suffer and our stock price could decline. Furthermore, growth will place significant strains on our management and our operational and financial systems and processes. For example, development and commercialization of the Prosigna Breast Cancer Assay, or Prosigna, and other

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future diagnostic products worldwide are key elements of our growth strategy and have required us to hire and retain additional sales and marketing, medical, regulatory, manufacturing and quality assurance personnel. In addition, we intend to make further investments in sales and marketing personnel to enable our commercial organization to effectively manage the increased scale and complexity of our business. If we do not successfully generate demand for our products or manage our anticipated expenses accordingly, our operating results will be harmed.
Our future success is dependent upon our ability to expand our customer base and introduce new applications.
Our current customer base is primarily composed of academic and government research laboratories, biopharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories that perform analyses using our nCounter Analysis Systems. Our success will depend, in part, upon our ability to increase our market penetration among all of these customers and to expand our market by developing and marketing new research applications, new instruments, and new diagnostic products. In light of our analysis of fourth quarter 2016 operating results and in an effort to enhance future results, we intend to add sales staff focused on consumable sales to existing customers, thus enabling existing sales representatives to increase focus on instrument sales. We expect that increasing the installed base of our nCounter Analysis Systems will drive demand for our relatively high margin consumable products. If we are not able to successfully increase our installed base of nCounter Analysis Systems, sales of our consumable products and our margins may not meet expectations. Moreover, we must convince physicians and third-party payors that our diagnostic products, such as Prosigna, are cost effective in obtaining information that can help inform treatment decisions and that our nCounter Analysis Systems could enable an equivalent or superior approach that lessens reliance on centralized laboratories. Attracting new customers and introducing new applications requires substantial time and expense. Any failure to expand our existing customer base, or launch new applications, would adversely affect our ability to improve our operating results.
Our research business depends on levels of research and development spending by academic and governmental research institutions and biopharmaceutical companies, a reduction in which could limit demand for our products and adversely affect our business and operating results.
In the near term, we expect that a large portion of our revenue will be derived from sales of our nCounter Analysis Systems to academic and government research laboratories and biopharmaceutical companies worldwide for research and development applications. The demand for our products will depend in part upon the research and development budgets of these customers, which are impacted by factors beyond our control, such as:
changes in government programs (such as the National Institutes of Health) that provide funding to research institutions and companies;
macroeconomic conditions and the political climate;
changes in the regulatory environment;
differences in budgetary cycles;
competitor product offerings or pricing;
market-driven pressures to consolidate operations and reduce costs; and
market acceptance of relatively new technologies, such as ours.
In addition, academic, governmental and other research institutions that fund research and development activities may be subject to stringent budgetary constraints that could result in spending reductions, reduced allocations or budget cutbacks, which could jeopardize the ability of these customers to purchase our products. Our operating results may fluctuate substantially due to reductions and delays in research and development expenditures by these customers. Any decrease in our customers’ budgets or expenditures, or in the size, scope or frequency of capital or operating expenditures, could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Our sales cycle is lengthy and variable, which makes it difficult for us to forecast revenue and other operating results.
Our sales process involves numerous interactions with multiple individuals within an organization, and often includes in-depth analysis by potential customers of our products, performance of proof-of-principle studies, preparation of extensive documentation and a lengthy review process. As a result of these factors, the large capital investment required in purchasing

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our instruments and the budget cycles of our customers, the time from initial contact with a customer to our receipt of a purchase order can vary significantly and be up to 12 months or longer. Given the length and uncertainty of our sales cycle, we have in the past experienced, and likely will in the future experience, fluctuations in our instrument sales on a period-to-period basis. These factors also make it difficult to forecast revenue on a quarterly basis. For example, in the fourth quarter of 2016, our actual revenues were lower than our forecasts for many reasons that we did not predict, including reduced funding availability for certain of our potential customers and extended timelines for finalizing purchase decisions by potential customers. Furthermore, from time-to-time, we may lease instruments or place instruments under reagent rental agreements, wherein a customer does not purchase an instrument upfront but instead pays a rental fee associated with each purchase of reagents. An increase in instruments placed under these lease or reagent rental agreements may reduce the number of instruments we would otherwise sell in any period. In addition, any failure to meet customer expectations could result in customers choosing to continue to use their existing systems or to purchase systems other than ours.
Our reliance on distributors for sales of our products outside of the United States, and on clinical laboratories for delivery of Prosigna testing services, could limit or prevent us from selling our products and impact our revenue.
We have established exclusive distribution agreements for our nCounter Analysis Systems and related consumable products within parts of Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific and South America. We intend to continue to grow our business internationally, and to do so we must attract additional distributors and retain existing distributors to maximize the commercial opportunity for our products. There is no guarantee that we will be successful in attracting or retaining desirable sales and distribution partners or that we will be able to enter into such arrangements on favorable terms. Distributors may not commit the necessary resources to market and sell our products to the level of our expectations or may choose to favor marketing the products of our competitors. If current or future distributors do not perform adequately, or we are unable to enter into effective arrangements with distributors in particular geographic areas, we may not realize long-term international revenue growth.
Similarly, we or our distributors have entered into agreements with clinical laboratories globally to provide Prosigna testing services. We do not provide testing services directly and, thus, we are reliant on these clinical laboratories to actively promote and sell Prosigna testing services. These clinical laboratories may take longer than anticipated to begin offering Prosigna testing services and may not commit the necessary resources to market and sell Prosigna testing services to the level of our expectations. Furthermore, we intend to contract with additional clinical laboratories to offer Prosigna testing services and we may be unsuccessful in attracting and contracting with new clinical laboratory providers. If current or future Prosigna testing service providers do not perform adequately, or we are unable to enter into contracts with additional clinical laboratories to provide Prosigna testing services, we may not be successful selling Prosigna and our future revenue prospects may be adversely affected.
Our strategy to seek to enter into strategic collaborations and licensing arrangements with third parties to develop diagnostic tests may not be successful.
We have relied, and expect to continue to rely, on strategic collaborations and licensing agreements with third parties for discoveries based on which we develop diagnostic tests. For example, we licensed the rights to intellectual property that forms the basis of Prosigna from Bioclassifier, LLC, which was founded by several of our research customers engaged in translational research. Similarly, in connection with our collaboration with Celgene Corporation, we licensed the rights to intellectual property relating to a gene signature for lymphoma subtyping, which was discovered by a consortium of researchers including several of our research customers, from the National Institutes of Health. In connection with our collaboration with Merck to develop a companion diagnostic test, our partner has licensed the technology for such test to us. We intend to enter into more such arrangements with our research customers and other researchers, including biopharmaceutical companies, for development of future diagnostic products. However, there is no assurance that we will be successful in doing so. In particular, our customers are not obligated to collaborate with us or license technology to us, and they may choose to develop diagnostic products themselves or collaborate with our competitors. Establishing collaborations and licensing arrangements is difficult and time-consuming. Discussions may not lead to collaborations or licenses on favorable terms, if at all. To the extent we agree to work exclusively with a party in a given area, our opportunities to collaborate with others could be limited. Potential collaborators or licensors may elect not to work with us based upon their assessment of our financial, regulatory or intellectual property position. Furthermore, significant consolidation in the life sciences industry has occurred during the last several years and in connection with such consolidation, the combined company often reassesses its development priorities which may impact our existing collaborations or future opportunities. For example, in May 2017, Astellas Pharma Inc. announced a joint decision with Pfizer

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Inc. to discontinue the planned ENDEAR trial which was the subject of our collaboration. We were informed that the decision resulted from a portfolio review by Astellas Pharma and Pfizer. Even if we establish new relationships, we or our collaborators may terminate the relationship or they may never result in the successful development or commercialization of future tests.
New diagnostic product development involves a lengthy and complex process, and we may be unable to commercialize on a timely basis, or at all, any of the tests we develop.
Few research and development projects result in successful commercial products, and success in early clinical studies often is not replicated in later studies. At any point, we may abandon development of a product candidate or we may be required to expend considerable resources repeating clinical studies, which would adversely impact potential revenue and our expenses. In addition, any delay in product development would provide others with additional time to commercialize competing products before we do, which in turn may adversely affect our growth prospects and operating results.
In March 2014, we entered into our first companion diagnostic collaboration with Celgene Corporation to develop an in vitro diagnostic assay to be used for subtyping certain lymphoma patients. In May 2015, we entered into a clinical research collaboration agreement with Merck to develop an assay that could become the subject of an additional companion diagnostic collaboration. In February 2016, we expanded our collaboration with Merck by entering into a new development collaboration agreement to clinically develop and commercialize a novel diagnostic test, based on an optimized gene expression signature, to predict response to KEYTRUDA in multiple tumor types. We intend to enter into additional similar collaborations over time. The success of the development programs for such assays will be dependent on the success of the related drug trials conducted by our collaborators. There is no guarantee that those clinical trials will be successful and, as a result, we may expend considerable time and resources developing in vitro diagnostic assays that cannot gain regulatory approval. Although we expect such collaborations to provide funding to cover our costs of development, failure of these clinical trials would reduce our prospects for introducing new diagnostic products and would adversely impact our growth prospects and future operating results.
Our future capital needs are uncertain and we may need to raise additional funds in the future.
We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, together with funds available under our term loan agreement, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash requirements for at least the next 12 months. However, we may need to raise substantial additional capital to:
expand the commercialization of our products;
fund our operations; and
further our research and development.
Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:
market acceptance of our products;
the cost and timing of establishing additional sales, marketing and distribution capabilities;
revenue and cash flow derived from existing or future collaborations;
the cost of our research and development activities;
the cost and timing of regulatory clearances or approvals;
the effect of competing technological and market developments; and
the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies, including new licensing arrangements for new products.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain additional funds on acceptable terms, or at all. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity or equity-linked securities, our stockholders may experience dilution. Additional debt financing, if available, may involve additional covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt. Any debt or additional equity financing that we raise may contain terms that are not favorable to us or our stockholders. If we raise additional funds through collaboration and licensing arrangements with third parties, it may be necessary to relinquish some rights to our technologies or

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our products, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. If we do not have, or are not able to obtain, sufficient funds, we may have to delay development or commercialization of our products or license to third parties the rights to commercialize products or technologies that we would otherwise seek to commercialize. We also may have to reduce marketing, customer support or other resources devoted to our products or cease operations. Any of these factors could harm our operating results.
Our research and development efforts will be hindered if we are not able to contract with third parties for access to archival tissue samples.
Under standard clinical practice, tumor biopsies removed from patients are preserved and stored in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, or FFPE, format. We rely on our ability to secure access to these archived FFPE tumor biopsy samples, as well as information pertaining to the clinical outcomes of the patients from which they were derived for our clinical development activities. Others compete with us for access to these samples. Additionally, the process of negotiating access to archived samples is lengthy because it typically involves numerous parties and approval levels to resolve complex issues such as usage rights, institutional review board approval, privacy rights, publication rights, intellectual property ownership and research parameters. In January 2017, the Department of Health and Human Services finalized new rules, which become effective as of January 19, 2018, expanding the language to be included in informed consent forms related to the collection of identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens. If this new requirement, or other factors arising in the future, impact our ability to negotiate access to archived tumor tissue samples with hospitals, clinical partners, pharmaceutical companies, or companies developing therapeutics on a timely basis or on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or if other laboratories or our competitors secure access to these samples before us, our ability to research, develop and commercialize future products will be limited or delayed.
The life sciences research and diagnostic markets are highly competitive. If we fail to compete effectively, our business and operating results will suffer.
We face significant competition in the life sciences research and diagnostic markets. We currently compete with both established and early stage life sciences research companies that design, manufacture and market instruments and consumables for gene expression analysis, single-cell analysis, polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, digital PCR, other nucleic acid detection and additional applications. These companies use well-established laboratory techniques such as microarrays or quantitative PCR, or qPCR, as well as newer technologies such as next generation sequencing. We believe our principal competitors in the life sciences research and diagnostic markets are Agilent Technologies, Becton-Dickinson, Bio-Rad, Bio-Techne, Fluidigm, HTG Molecular Diagnostics, Illumina, Luminex, Merck Millipore, O-Link, Perkin Elmer, Qiagen, Roche Applied Science, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and WaferGen Biosystems. In addition, there are a number of new market entrants in the process of developing novel technologies for the life sciences market.
We also compete with commercial diagnostic laboratory companies. We believe our principal competitor in the breast cancer diagnostics market is Genomic Health, which provides gene expression analysis at its central laboratory in Redwood City, California and currently commands a substantial majority of the market. We also face competition from companies such as Agendia, bioTheranostics, and NeoGenomics, which also offer services by means of centralized laboratories that profile gene or protein expression in breast cancer. In Europe, we also face regional competition from Myriad Genetics, which recently acquired Sividon Diagnostics and its product EndoPredict, a distributed test for breast cancer recurrence. Myriad Genetics has announced its intent to begin selling EndoPredict in the United States after obtaining any necessary regulatory approvals.
Many of our current competitors are large publicly-traded companies, or are divisions of large publicly-traded companies, and may enjoy a number of competitive advantages over us, including:
greater name and brand recognition, financial and human resources;
broader product lines;
larger sales forces and more established distributor networks;
substantial intellectual property portfolios;
larger and more established customer bases and relationships; and
better established, larger scale, and lower cost manufacturing capabilities.

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We believe that the principal competitive factors in all of our target markets include:
cost of capital equipment;
cost of consumables and supplies;
reputation among customers;
innovation in product offerings;
flexibility and ease-of-use;
accuracy and reproducibility of results; and
compatibility with existing laboratory processes, tools and methods.
We believe that additional competitive factors specific to the diagnostics market include:
availability of reimbursement for testing services;
breadth of clinical decisions that can be influenced by information generated by tests;
volume, quality, and strength of clinical and analytical validation data;
inclusion in treatment guidelines; and
economic benefit accrued to customers based on testing services enabled by products.
We cannot assure investors that our products will compete favorably or that we will be successful in the face of increasing competition from new products and technologies introduced by our existing competitors or new companies entering our markets. In addition, we cannot assure investors that our competitors do not have or will not develop products or technologies that currently or in the future will enable them to produce competitive products with greater capabilities or at lower costs than ours. Any failure to compete effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
If Prosigna fails to achieve and sustain sufficient market acceptance, we will not generate expected revenue, and our prospects may be harmed.
Commercialization of Prosigna in Europe, the United States and the other jurisdictions in which we intend to pursue regulatory approval or clearance is a key element of our strategy. Currently, most oncologists seeking sophisticated gene expression analysis for diagnosing and profiling breast cancer in their patients ship tissue samples to a limited number of centralized laboratories typically located in the United States. We may experience reluctance, or refusal, on the part of physicians to order, and third-party payors to pay for, Prosigna if the results of our research and clinical studies, and our sales and marketing activities relating to communication of these results, do not convey to physicians and patients that Prosigna provides equivalent or better prognostic information than those centralized laboratories. In addition, our diagnostic tests are performed by pathologists in local laboratories, rather than by a vendor in a remote centralized laboratory, which requires us to educate pathologists regarding the benefits of this business model and oncologists regarding the reliability and consistency of results generated locally. Also, we intend to offer Prosigna in other countries outside of the United States, where genomic testing for breast cancer is not widely available and the market for such tests is new. The future growth of the market for genomic breast cancer testing will depend on physicians’ acceptance of such testing and the availability of reimbursement for such tests.
These hurdles may make it difficult to convince healthcare providers that tests using our technologies are appropriate options for cancer diagnostics, may be equivalent or superior to available tests, and may be at least as cost effective as alternative technologies. If we fail to successfully commercialize Prosigna, we may never receive a return on the significant investments in sales and marketing, medical, regulatory, manufacturing and quality assurance personnel we have made, and further investments we intend to make, which would adversely affect our growth prospects, operating results and financial condition.
We have limited experience in marketing and selling our diagnostic products to clinical laboratories, and if we are unable to successfully commercialize our products, our business may be adversely affected.
We have limited experience marketing and selling our diagnostic products to clinical laboratories. Our sales of Prosigna will depend in large part on our ability to successfully market to oncologists and other healthcare providers. Because we have limited experience in marketing and selling our products in the diagnostics market, our ability to forecast demand, the

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infrastructure required to support such demand and the sales cycle to diagnostics customers is unproven. If we are not able to maintain an efficient and effective sales organization targeting these markets, our business and operating results will be adversely affected. If we are unable to market and sell our products effectively to clinical laboratories, our ability to sell diagnostic products, including Prosigna, will be adversely affected.
We may not be able to develop new products, enhance the capabilities of our systems to keep pace with rapidly changing technology and customer requirements or successfully manage the transition to new product offerings, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
Our success depends on our ability to develop new products and applications for our technology in existing and new markets, while improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of our systems. New technologies, techniques or products could emerge that might offer better combinations of price and performance than our current or future products and systems. Existing markets for our products, including gene expression analysis, gene fusions and copy number variation, as well as new markets, such as protein expression and gene mutations, and potential markets for our research and diagnostic product candidates, are characterized by rapid technological change and innovation. Competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. We anticipate that we will face increased competition in the future as existing companies and competitors develop new or improved products and as new companies enter the market with new technologies. It is critical to our success that we anticipate changes in technology and customer requirements and successfully introduce new, enhanced and competitive technologies to meet our customers’ and prospective customers’ needs on a timely and cost-effective basis. If we do not successfully innovate and introduce new technology into our product lines, our business and operating results will be adversely impacted.
The development of new products typically requires new scientific discoveries or advancements and complex technology and engineering. Such developments may involve external suppliers and service providers, making the management of development projects complex and subject to risks and uncertainties regarding timing, timely delivery of required components or services and satisfactory technical performance of such components or assembled products. For example, in 2016, a portion of the fluidic cartridges used in our nCounter SPRINT systems experienced leakage and we worked with our supplier to determine the root cause of the leakage and institute corrective actions at the supplier’s production facility. If we do not achieve the required technical specifications or successfully manage new product development processes, or if development work is not performed according to schedule, then such new technologies or products may be adversely impacted and our business and operating results may be harmed.
Additionally, we must carefully manage the introduction of new products. If customers believe that such products will offer enhanced features or be sold for a more attractive price, they may delay purchases until such products are available. In July 2015 we commercially launched a new version of our nCounter Analysis System, the nCounter SPRINT Profiler, that is smaller and less expensive than the previous version. If customers conclude that such new products offer better value as compared to our existing products, we may suffer from reduced sales of our existing products and our overall revenue may decline. We may also have excess or obsolete inventory of older products as we transition to new products and our experience in managing product transitions is limited. If we do not effectively manage the transitions to new product offerings, our revenue, results of operations and business will be adversely affected.
New market opportunities may not develop as quickly as we expect, limiting our ability to successfully market and sell our products.
The market for our products is new and evolving. Accordingly, we expect the application of our technologies to emerging opportunities will take several years to develop and mature and we cannot be certain that these market opportunities will develop as we expect. For example, in September 2015, we launched our first 3D Biology application, a new product that allows users to simultaneously measure gene and protein expression from a single sample. In 2016 and 2017, we launched additional 3D Biology panels, including our first for the measurement of DNA mutations. The future growth of the market for these new products depends on many factors beyond our control, including recognition and acceptance of our applications by the scientific community and the growth, prevalence and costs of competing methods of genomic analysis. Also, in 2015, we commercially launched a new version of our nCounter Analysis system for research, the nCounter SPRINT Profiler. If the markets for our new products do not develop as we expect, our business may be adversely affected. If we are not able to successfully market and sell our products or to achieve the revenue or margins we expect, our operating results may be harmed.

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We are dependent on single source suppliers for some of the components and materials used in our products, and the loss of any of these suppliers could harm our business.
We rely on Precision System Science, Co., Ltd of Chiba, Japan, to build our nCounter Prep Station, Korvis LLC of Corvallis, Oregon, to build our nCounter Digital Analyzer, Paramit Corporation of Morgan Hill, California, to build our new nCounter SPRINT Profiler and IDEX Corporation of Lake Forest, Illinois to build the fluidics cartridge, a key component of our nCounter SPRINT Profiler. Each of these contract manufacturers are sole suppliers. Since our contracts with these instrument suppliers do not commit them to carry inventory or make available any particular quantities, they may give other customers’ needs higher priority than ours, and we may not be able to obtain adequate supplies in a timely manner or on commercially reasonable terms. We also rely on sole suppliers for various components we use to manufacture our consumable products. We periodically forecast our needs for such components and enter into standard purchase orders with them. If we were to lose such suppliers, there can be no assurance that we will be able to identify or enter into agreements with alternative suppliers on a timely basis on acceptable terms, if at all. If we should encounter delays or difficulties in securing the quality and quantity of materials we require for our products, our supply chain would be interrupted which would adversely affect sales. If any of these events occur, our business and operating results could be harmed.
We may experience manufacturing problems or delays that could limit our growth or adversely affect our operating results
Our consumable products are manufactured at our Seattle, Washington facility using complex processes, sophisticated equipment and strict adherence to specifications and quality systems procedures. Any unforeseen manufacturing problems, such as contamination of our facility, equipment malfunction, quality issues with components and materials sourced from third-party suppliers or failure to strictly follow procedures or meet specifications, could result in delays or shortfalls in production or require us to voluntarily recall of our consumable products. Identifying and resolving the cause of any such manufacturing or supplier issues could require substantial time and resources. If we are unable to keep up with demand for our products by successfully manufacturing and shipping our products in a timely manner, our revenue could be impaired, market acceptance for our products could be adversely affected and our customers might instead purchase our competitors’ products.
In addition, the introduction of new products may require the development of new manufacturing processes and procedures. For example, our new 3D Biology applications for the simultaneous measurement of gene and protein expression involve a new process for attaching antibodies to our molecular barcodes. Additionally, we recently launched our first panel for the measurement of DNA mutations. While all of our CodeSets are produced using the same basic processes, significant variations may be required to meet new product specifications. Developing new processes can be very time consuming, and any unexpected difficulty in doing so could delay the introduction of a product.
If our Seattle facilities become unavailable or inoperable, we will be unable to continue our research and development, manufacturing our consumables or processing sales orders, and our business will be harmed.
We manufacture our consumable products in our headquarters facilities in Seattle, Washington. In addition, Seattle is the center for research and development, order processing, receipt of our instruments manufactured by third-party contract manufacturers and shipping products to customers. Our facilities and the equipment we use to manufacture our consumable products would be costly, and would require substantial lead time, to repair or replace. Seattle is situated near active earthquake fault lines. These facilities may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes and power outages, which may render it difficult or impossible for us to produce our products for some period of time. The inability to manufacture consumables or to ship products to customers for even a short period of time may result in the loss of customers or harm our reputation, and we may be unable to regain those customers in the future. Although we possess insurance for damage to our property and the disruption of our business, this insurance, and in particular earthquake insurance, which is limited, may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, if at all.
We expect to generate a substantial portion of our revenue internationally and are subject to various risks relating to our international activities, which could adversely affect our operating results.
For the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, approximately 33% and 31%, respectively, of our revenue was generated from sales to customers located outside of North America. We believe that a significant percentage of our future

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revenue will come from international sources as we expand our overseas operations and develop opportunities in additional areas. Engaging in international business involves a number of difficulties and risks, including:
required compliance with existing and changing foreign regulatory requirements and laws;
required compliance with anti-bribery laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and U.K. Bribery Act, data privacy requirements, labor laws and anti-competition regulations;
export or import restrictions;
various reimbursement and insurance regimes;
laws and business practices favoring local companies;
longer payment cycles and difficulties in enforcing agreements and collecting receivables through certain foreign legal systems;
political and economic instability, such as the anticipated exit of Great Britain from the European Economic Community;
potentially adverse tax consequences, tariffs, customs charges, bureaucratic requirements and other trade barriers;
difficulties and costs of staffing and managing foreign operations; and
difficulties protecting or procuring intellectual property rights.
As we expand internationally, our results of operations and cash flows will become increasingly subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Historically, most of our revenue has been denominated in U.S. dollars, although we have sold our products and services in local currency outside of the United States, principally the Euro. Our expenses are generally denominated in the currencies in which our operations are located, which is primarily in the United States. As our operations in countries outside of the United States grow, our results of operations and cash flows will increasingly be subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, which could harm our business in the future. For example, if the value of the U.S. dollar increases relative to foreign currencies, our revenue could be adversely affected as we convert revenue from local currencies to U.S. dollars. Similarly, a strong U.S. dollar relative to the local currencies of our international customers can potentially reduce demand for our products, which may compound the adverse effect of foreign exchange translation on our revenue. If we dedicate significant resources to our international operations and are unable to manage these risks effectively, our business, operating results and prospects will suffer.
Significant U.K. or European developments stemming from the U.K.’s referendum on membership in the European Union could have a material adverse effect on us.
In June 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum and voted in favor of leaving the European Union, and in March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom formally initiated the withdrawal process. This has created political and economic uncertainty, particularly in the United Kingdom and the European Union, and this uncertainty may last for years. Our business in the United Kingdom, the European Union, and worldwide could be affected during this period of uncertainty, and perhaps longer, by the impact of the United Kingdom’s referendum. There are many ways in which our business could be affected, only some of which we can identify as of the date of this report.
The decision of the United Kingdom to withdraw from the European Union has caused and, along with events that could occur in the future as a consequence of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal, including the possible breakup of the United Kingdom, may continue to cause significant volatility in global financial markets, including in global currency and debt markets. This volatility could cause a slowdown in economic activity in the United Kingdom, Europe or globally, which could adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects. In addition, our business could be negatively affected by new trade agreements or data transfer agreements between the United Kingdom and other countries, including the United States, and by the possible imposition of trade or other regulatory and immigration barriers in the United Kingdom. In addition, the Europe-wide market authorization framework for our products (and for the drugs sold by our collaboration partners in the pharmaceutical industry) may also change. Furthermore, we currently operate in Europe through a subsidiary based in the United Kingdom, which provides us with certain operational, tax and other benefits, as well as through other subsidiaries in Europe. The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union could adversely affect our ability to realize those benefits and we may incur costs and suffer disruptions in our European operations as a result. These possible negative impacts, and others resulting from the United Kingdom’s actual or threatened withdrawal from the European Union, may adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.

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Our ability to use net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.
As of December 31, 2016, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, to offset future taxable income of approximately $204.9 million, which expire in various years beginning in 2025, if not utilized. A lack of future taxable income would adversely affect our ability to utilize these NOLs. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its NOLs to offset future taxable income. We may have already experienced one or more ownership changes. Depending on the timing of any future utilization of our carryforwards, we may be limited as to the amount that can be utilized each year as a result of such previous ownership changes. However, we do not believe such limitations will cause our NOL and credit carryforwards to expire unutilized. In addition, future changes in our stock ownership as well as other changes that may be outside of our control, could result in additional ownership changes under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code. Our NOLs may also be impaired under similar provisions of state law. We have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our NOLs and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.
Provisions of our debt instruments may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies.
Our term loan agreement requires us, and any debt instruments we may enter into in the future may require us, to comply with various covenants that limit our ability to, among other things:
dispose of assets;
complete mergers or acquisitions;
incur indebtedness;
encumber assets;
pay dividends or make other distributions to holders of our capital stock;
make specified investments;
engage in any new line of business; and
engage in certain transactions with our affiliates.
These restrictions could inhibit our ability to pursue our business strategies. In addition, we are subject to financial covenants based on total revenue and minimum cash balances. If we default under our term loan agreement, and such event of default is not cured or waived, the lenders could terminate commitments to lend and cause all amounts outstanding with respect to the debt to be due and payable immediately, which in turn could result in cross defaults under other debt instruments. Our assets and cash flow may not be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under all of our outstanding debt instruments if some or all of these instruments are accelerated upon a default. We may incur additional indebtedness in the future. The debt instruments governing such indebtedness could contain provisions that are as, or more, restrictive than our existing debt instruments. If we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure our indebtedness when payment is due, the lenders could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure such indebtedness or force us into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Acquisitions or joint ventures could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our stockholders and otherwise harm our business.
We may acquire other businesses, products or technologies as well as pursue strategic alliances, joint ventures, technology licenses or investments in complementary businesses. We have not made any acquisitions to date, and our ability to do so successfully is unproven. Any of these transactions could be material to our financial condition and operating results and expose us to many risks, including:
disruption in our relationships with customers, distributors or suppliers as a result of such a transaction;
unanticipated liabilities related to acquired companies;
difficulties integrating acquired personnel, technologies and operations into our existing business;
diversion of management time and focus from operating our business;
increases in our expenses and reductions in our cash available for operations and other uses; and

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possible write-offs or impairment charges relating to acquired businesses.
Foreign acquisitions involve unique risks in addition to those mentioned above, including those related to integration of operations across different cultures and languages, currency risks and the particular economic, political and regulatory risks associated with specific countries.
Also, the anticipated benefit of any strategic transaction may not materialize. Future acquisitions or dispositions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or amortization expenses or write-offs of goodwill, any of which could harm our financial condition. We cannot predict the number, timing or size of future joint ventures or acquisitions, or the effect that any such transactions might have on our operating results.
If we are unable to recruit, train and retain key personnel, we may not achieve our goals.
Our future success depends on our ability to recruit, train, retain and motivate key personnel, including our senior management, research and development, manufacturing and sales and marketing personnel. Competition for qualified personnel is intense, particularly in the Seattle, Washington area. Our growth depends, in particular, on attracting, retaining and motivating highly-trained sales personnel with the necessary scientific background and ability to understand our systems at a technical level to effectively identify and sell to potential new customers. We do not maintain fixed term employment contracts or key man life insurance with any of our employees. Because of the complex and technical nature of our products and the dynamic market in which we compete, any failure to attract, train, retain and motivate qualified personnel could materially harm our operating results and growth prospects.
Undetected errors or defects in our products could harm our reputation, decrease market acceptance of our products or expose us to product liability claims.
Our products may contain undetected errors or defects when first introduced or as new versions are released. Disruptions or other performance problems with our products may damage our customers’ businesses, harm our reputation and result in reduced revenues. If that occurs, we may also incur significant costs, the attention of our key personnel could be diverted, or other significant customer relations problems may arise. We may also be subject to warranty and liability claims for damages related to errors or defects in our products. A material liability claim or other occurrence that harms our reputation or decreases market acceptance of our products could adversely impact our business and operating results.
The sale and use of products or services based on our technologies, or activities related to our research and clinical studies, could lead to the filing of product liability claims if someone were to allege that one of our products contained a design or manufacturing defect which resulted in the failure to adequately perform the analysis for which it was designed. A product liability claim could result in substantial damages and be costly and time consuming to defend, either of which could materially harm our business or financial condition. We cannot assure investors that our product liability insurance would adequately protect our assets from the financial impact of defending a product liability claim. Any product liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could increase our product liability insurance rates or prevent us from securing insurance coverage in the future.
We face risks related to handling of hazardous materials and other regulations governing environmental safety.
Our operations are subject to complex and stringent environmental, health, safety and other governmental laws and regulations that both public officials and private individuals may seek to enforce. Our activities that are subject to these regulations include, among other things, our use of hazardous materials and the generation, transportation and storage of waste. We could discover that we or an acquired business are not in material compliance with these regulations. Existing laws and regulations may also be revised or reinterpreted, or new laws and regulations may become applicable to us, whether retroactively or prospectively, that may have a negative effect on our business and results of operations. It is also impossible to eliminate completely the risk of accidental environmental contamination or injury to individuals. In such an event, we could be liable for any damages that result, which could adversely affect our business.

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If we experience a significant disruption in our information technology systems or breaches of data security, our business could be adversely affected.
We rely on information technology systems to keep financial records, manage our manufacturing operations, fulfill customer orders, capture laboratory data, maintain corporate records, communicate with staff and external parties and operate other critical functions. Our information technology systems are potentially vulnerable to disruption due to breakdown, malicious intrusion and computer viruses or other disruptive events including but not limited to natural disaster. If we were to experience a prolonged system disruption in our information technology systems or those of certain of our vendors, it could negatively impact our ability to serve our customers, which could adversely impact our business. Although we maintain offsite back-ups of our data, if operations at our facilities were disrupted, it may cause a material disruption in our business if we are not capable of restoring function on an acceptable timeframe. In addition, our information technology systems are potentially vulnerable to data security breaches — whether by employees or others — which may expose sensitive data to unauthorized persons. Such data security breaches could lead to the loss of trade secrets or other intellectual property, or could lead to the public exposure of personal information (including sensitive personal information) of our employees, customers and others, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to prevent such security breaches or privacy violations or implement satisfactory remedial measures, our operations could be disrupted, and we may suffer loss of reputation, financial loss and other negative consequences because of lost or misappropriated information. In addition, these breaches and other inappropriate access can be difficult to detect, and any delay in identifying them may lead to increased harm of the type described above.
Risks Related to Government Regulation and Diagnostic Product Reimbursement
Our “research use only” products for the research market could become subject to regulation as medical devices by the FDA or other regulatory agencies in the future which could increase our costs and delay our commercialization efforts, thereby materially and adversely affecting our business and results of operations.
In the United States, most of our products are currently labeled and sold for research use only, or RUO, and not for the diagnosis or treatment of disease, and are sold to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic and government institutions and research laboratories. Because such products are not intended for diagnostic use, and the products do not include clinical or diagnostic claims, or directions to use as diagnostic products, they are not subject to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, as medical devices. In particular, while the FDA regulations require that RUO products be labeled, “For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures,” the regulations do not subject such products to the FDA’s pre- and post- market controls for medical devices. Pursuant to FDA guidance on RUO products, a company may not make clinical or diagnostic claims about an RUO product or provide clinical directions or clinical support services to customers for RUO products. If the FDA were to modify its approach to regulating products labeled for research use only, it could reduce our revenue or increase our costs and adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations or financial condition. In the event that the FDA requires marketing authorization of our RUO products in the future, there can be no assurance that the FDA will ultimately grant any clearance or approval requested by us in a timely manner, or at all.
In addition, we sell dual-use instruments with software that has both FDA-cleared functions and research functions, for which FDA approval or clearance is not required. Dual-use instruments are subject to FDA regulation since they are intended, at least in part, for use by customers performing clinical diagnostic testing. In November 2014, FDA issued a guidance document that described FDA’s approach to regulating molecular diagnostic instruments that combine both approved/cleared device functions and device functions for which approval/clearance is not required. There is a risk that the FDA could take enforcement action against a manufacturer for distributing dual-use instruments if the company does not follow the restrictions discussed in the guidance document. For example, there could be enforcement action if the FDA determines that approval or clearance was required for those functions for which FDA approval or clearance has not been obtained, and the instruments are being promoted off-label. There is also a risk that the FDA could broaden its current regulatory enforcement of dual-use instruments through additional FDA oversight of such products or impose additional requirements upon such products. The FDA has proposed that these devices be exempt in the future from the requirement for FDA clearance. The comment period for the proposal closed on May 15, 2017.

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If Medicare and other third-party payors in the United States and foreign countries do not approve reimbursement for diagnostic tests enabled by our technology, the commercial success of our diagnostic products would be compromised.
Successful commercialization of our diagnostic products depends, in large part, on the availability of adequate reimbursement for testing services that our diagnostic products enable from government insurance plans, managed care organizations and private insurance plans. There is significant uncertainty surrounding third-party reimbursement for the use of tests that incorporate new technology. For example, after the FDA clearance of Prosigna in September 2013, it took over two years to achieve broad Medicare reimbursement of Prosigna testing.
If we are unable to obtain positive policy decisions from third-party payors approving reimbursement for our tests at adequate levels, the commercial success of our products would be compromised and our revenue would be significantly limited. Even if we do obtain reimbursement for our tests, Medicare, Medicaid and private and other payors may withdraw their coverage policies, cancel their contracts at any time, review and adjust the rate of reimbursement, require co-payments from patients or stop paying for our tests, which would reduce revenue for testing services based on our technology, and indirectly, demand for diagnostic products. In addition, insurers, including managed care organizations as well as government payors such as Medicare and Medicaid, have increased their efforts to control the cost, utilization and delivery of healthcare services, which may include decreased coverage or reduced reimbursement. From time to time, Congress has considered and implemented changes to the Medicare fee schedules in conjunction with budgetary legislation, and pricing and payment terms, including the possible requirement of a patient co-payment for Medicare beneficiaries for tests covered by Medicare, and are subject to change at any time. Most recently the Protecting Access to Medicare Act, or PAMA, of 2014 revises the Medicare Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule, or CLFS, to base prices on commercial payer rates that are reported to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS. In June 2016, CMS released the final Clinical Diagnostic Tests Laboratory Payment System regulations, in response to PAMA. The statute applies different reporting and payment requirements to Advanced Diagnostic Laboratory Tests, or ADLTs and to Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Tests, or CDLTs. Under the definitions in the proposed rules, Prosigna would be defined as a CDLT and would be repriced every three years based on a weighted median of commercial payments submitted by labs. As a result, if commercial payment amounts decline, there is a risk that Medicare prices will fall as well, though PAMA limits these reductions to no more than 10% less than the prior year during calendar years 2018-2020 and no more than 15% less during years 2021-2023. Reductions in the reimbursement rate of third-party payors have also occurred and may occur in the future. Reductions in the prices at which testing services based on our technology are reimbursed could have a negative impact on our revenue.
In many countries outside of the United States, various coverage, pricing and reimbursement approvals are required. Recently, positive reimbursement decisions for Prosigna have occurred in France, certain regions of Spain and Israel. Despite these positive developments, we continue to expect that it will take several years to establish broad coverage and reimbursement for testing services based on our products with most payors in countries outside of the United States, and our efforts may not be successful.
We continue to pursue positive reimbursement and coverage decisions from government insurance plans, managed care organizations and private insurance plans.  From time to time, if positive coverage decisions are obtained, we may publicly announce such decisions.  In most cases where coverage is denied by a third-party payor, there will be subsequent opportunities to submit additional information or clinical evidence and have such decision reconsidered. We intend to evaluate the benefit of continued pursuit of a positive reimbursement determination on a case by case basis and in most cases expect to continue to pursue a positive coverage decision with those payors based on additional information or subsequent clinical developments; as a result, we do not intend to publicly announce any denials of coverage or the absence of a coverage determination on a regular basis.
Our nCounter Elements reagents may be used by clinical laboratories to create Laboratory-Developed Tests, which could in the future be the subject of additional FDA regulation as medical devices, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In February 2014, we launched nCounter Elements reagents, a new digital molecular barcoding chemistry that allows users to design their own customized assays using standard sets of barcodes provided by us with the laboratories’ choice of oligonucleotide probes. nCounter Elements reagents may be used by laboratories in conjunction with appropriate analyte-

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specific reagents and general purpose reagents to create diagnostic tests or test systems.
A clinical laboratory can use nCounter Elements reagents to create what is called a Laboratory Developed Test, or LDT. LDTs, according to the FDA, are diagnostic tests that are developed, validated and performed by a single laboratory and include genetic tests.  Historically, LDTs generally have not been subject to FDA regulations. In October 2014, the FDA issued draft guidance documents proposing the use of a risk-based approach to regulating LDTs. Any restrictions on LDTs by the FDA could decrease demand for our nCounter Elements reagents. Additionally, compliance with additional regulatory burdens could be time consuming and costly for our customers. While FDA announced in November 2016 that it did not intend to seek finalization of the draft LDT guidance, Congress could enact legislation that could result in FDA regulation of some LDTs. If legislation were enacted, it could adversely affect demand for our nCounter Elements reagents.
If we are unable to obtain additional regulatory clearances or approvals to market Prosigna in additional countries or if regulatory limitations are placed on our diagnostic products, our business and growth will be harmed. In addition, if we do not obtain additional regulatory clearances or approvals necessary to market products other than Prosigna for diagnostic purposes, we will be limited to marketing such products for research use only.
We have received regulatory clearance in the United States under a 510(k) for a version of our first diagnostic product, Prosigna, providing an assessment of a patient’s risk of recurrence for breast cancer, and we have obtained a CE mark for Prosigna which permits us to market that assay for diagnostic purposes in the European Union. We do not have regulatory clearance or approval to market in any additional markets, other than Israel, Canada, Turkey, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Australia, Thailand, and Argentina, or to promote Prosigna in the United States for additional indications. Other than with respect to Prosigna in such jurisdictions, we are limited to marketing our products for research use only, which means that we cannot make diagnostic or clinical claims. We intend to seek regulatory authorizations to market Prosigna in other jurisdictions and, potentially, for other indications. In addition, pursuant to our collaborations with pharmaceutical companies for the development of companion diagnostic tests for use with their drugs, we are responsible for obtaining regulatory authorizations needed to use the companion diagnostic tests in clinical trials as well as the regulatory approvals to sell the companion diagnostic tests following completion of such trials. Some of the compensation we expect to receive pursuant to these collaborations is based on the receipt of such approvals.
We cannot assure investors that we will be successful in obtaining these regulatory clearances or approvals. If we do not obtain additional regulatory clearances or approvals to market future products or expand future indications for diagnostic purposes, if additional regulatory limitations are placed on our products or if we fail to successfully commercialize such products, the market potential for our diagnostic products would be constrained, and our business and growth prospects would be adversely affected.
Approval and/or clearance by the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities for our diagnostic tests will take significant time and require significant research, development and clinical study expenditures and ultimately may not succeed.
Before we begin to label and market our products for use as clinical diagnostics in the United States, thereby subjecting them to FDA regulation as medical devices, unless an exemption applies we are required to obtain either prior 510(k) clearance or prior pre-market application approval, or PMA approval, from the FDA. In September 2013, we received FDA 510(k) clearance for Prosigna as a prognostic indicator for distant recurrence-free survival at 10 years in post-menopausal women with Stage I/II lymph node-negative or Stage II lymph node-positive (1-3 positive nodes) hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who have undergone surgery in conjunction with locoregional treatment and consistent with the standard of care. We may pursue additional intended uses for Prosigna that require a PMA approval, which is a more burdensome regulatory process than the 510(k) clearance process. In addition, we are currently collaborating with Celgene and Merck on companion diagnostics. In August 2014, the FDA issued a companion diagnostics final guidance stating that if the device is essential to the safety or efficacy of the drug, the FDA generally will require approval or clearance for the device at the time when the FDA approves the drug. The FDA stated in the companion diagnostics final guidance that while in some instances a companion diagnostic could come to market through a 510(k), the Agency expects that companion diagnostics usually will require a PMA. In July 2016, the FDA issued a draft co-development companion diagnostic and therapeutic guidance document which similarly reflected this information. The draft guidance appears to also relate, at least in part, to what may be considered complementary diagnostics, i.e., diagnostics that do not meet the definition of an IVD companion diagnostic but are nonetheless beneficial for therapeutic product development or clinical decision making. If we developed a diagnostic device that was cleared or approved apart from a therapeutic product, rather than as a companion diagnostic, this may result in potentially reduced revenue for the test as the

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labeling of the drug would not reference the need for the diagnostic test.
Any 510(k) clearance or PMA approval we obtain for any future product would place substantial restrictions on how our device is marketed or sold. The FDA will continue to place considerable restrictions on our products, including, but not limited to, the obligation to comply with the Quality System Regulation, or QSR, registering manufacturing facilities, listing the products with the FDA, and complying with labeling, marketing, complaint handling, medical device reporting requirements, and reporting certain corrections and removals. Obtaining FDA clearance or approval for diagnostics can be expensive and uncertain, and generally takes from several months to several years from submission, and generally requires detailed and comprehensive scientific and clinical data, as well as compliance with FDA regulations. In addition, we have limited experience in obtaining PMA approval from the FDA and are therefore supplementing our operational capabilities to manage the more complex processes needed to obtain and maintain PMAs. Notwithstanding the expense, these efforts may never result in FDA approval or clearance. Even if we were to obtain regulatory approval or clearance, it may not be for the uses we believe are important or commercially attractive, in which case we would not market our product for those uses.
Sales of our diagnostic products outside the United States are subject to foreign regulatory requirements governing clinical studies, vigilance reporting, marketing approval, manufacturing, regulatory inspections, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement. These regulatory requirements vary greatly from country to country. As a result, the time required to obtain approvals outside the United States may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval or clearance, and we may not be able to obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis or at all. Approval or clearance by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval or clearance by regulatory authorities in other countries or by the FDA, and foreign regulatory authorities could require additional testing beyond what the FDA requires. In addition, FDA regulates exports of medical devices. Failure to comply with these regulatory requirements or to obtain required approvals or clearances could impair our ability to commercialize our diagnostic products outside of the United States.
We expect to rely on third parties in conducting any future studies of our diagnostic products that may be required by the FDA or other regulatory authorities, and to fulfill product registration requirements in foreign countries, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily.
We do not have the ability to independently conduct the clinical studies or other studies that may be required to obtain FDA and other regulatory clearance or approval for our diagnostic products, including additional indications for Prosigna. Accordingly, we expect to rely on third parties, such as medical institutions, clinical investigators, consultants, and collaborators to conduct such studies. Our reliance on these third parties for clinical development activities will reduce our control over these activities. These third-party contractors may not complete activities on schedule or conduct studies in accordance with regulatory requirements or our study design. Our reliance on third parties that we do not control will not relieve us of any applicable requirement to ensure compliance with various procedures required under good clinical practices and regulatory requirements. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or regulatory obligations or meet expected deadlines, if the third parties need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to their failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our studies may be extended, delayed, suspended or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for our diagnostic products.
In many countries, we are not permitted to directly apply for product registrations, and therefore must rely on third-party contractors or product distributors resident in those countries to fulfill the product registration requirements. Our reliance on these third parties reduces our control over the registration activities, and those parties may not appropriately register the products. Our reliance on third parties does not relieve us of the obligation to comply with applicable requirements, and therefore any failure on the part of the third parties could subject us to enforcement action in the country in which the registration was not properly fulfilled.
We are subject to ongoing and extensive regulatory requirements, and our failure to comply with these requirements could substantially harm our business.
Certain of our products are regulated as medical devices, including Prosigna, the nCounter Dx Analysis System and nCounter Elements reagents. Accordingly, we and certain of our contract manufacturers are subject to ongoing International Organization for Standardization, or ISO, and FDA obligations and continued regulatory oversight and review. These include routine

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inspections by EU Notified Bodies and by the FDA of our manufacturing facilities and our records for compliance with requirements such as ISO 13485 and the QSR, which establish extensive requirements for quality assurance and control as well as manufacturing and change control procedures. We are also subject to other regulatory obligations, such as requirements pertaining to the registration of our manufacturing facilities and the listing of our devices with the FDA; continued complaint, adverse event and malfunction reporting; corrections and removals reporting; and labeling and promotional requirements. Other agencies may also issue guidelines and regulations that could impact the development of our products, including companion diagnostic tests. For example, the European Medicines Agency, a European Union agency which is responsible for the scientific evaluation of medicines used in the EU, recently launched an initiative to determine guidelines for the use of genomic biomarkers in the development and life-cycle of drugs. It is expected that in mid-2017 the European Union will adopt the IVD Directive Regulation, currently being finalized, which would increase the regulatory requirements applicable to some in vitro diagnostics in the EU and would require that we re-classify and obtain pre-approval for our existing CE-marked IVD products within a 5-year grace period. We may also be subject to additional FDA or global regulatory authority post-marketing obligations or requirements by the FDA or global regulatory authority to change our current product classifications which would impose additional regulatory obligations on us. For example, following discussions with the FDA regarding the appropriate classification for our nCounter Elements TagSets as General Purpose Reagents, we submitted a de novo application to the FDA requesting classification of nCounter Elements TagSets as a Class I medical device. The FDA has requested additional information in support of our application. The promotional claims we can make for Prosigna are limited to the cleared (or equivalent) indication. If we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may not be permitted to market our medical device products and/or may be subject to enforcement by EU Competent Authorities and the FDA and other global regulatory authority such as the issuance of warning or untitled letters, fines, injunctions, and civil penalties; recall or seizure of products; operating restrictions; and criminal prosecution. In addition, we may be subject to similar regulatory regimes of foreign jurisdictions as we continue to commercialize our products in new markets outside of the U.S. and Europe. Adverse Notified Body, EU Competent Authority or FDA or global regulatory authority action in any of these areas could significantly increase our expenses and limit our revenue and profitability.
We may be subject, directly or indirectly, to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and other federal and state laws applicable to our marketing practices. If we are unable to comply, or have not complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.
Our operations are directly, or indirectly through our customers, subject to various federal and state fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the federal and state anti-kickback statutes and state and federal marketing compliance laws and gift bans. These laws may impact, among other things, our proposed sales and marketing and education programs and require us to implement additional internal systems for tracking certain marketing expenditures and reporting them to government authorities. In addition, we may be subject to patient privacy regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include:
the federal Anti-kickback Law and state anti-kickback prohibitions;
the federal physician self-referral prohibition, commonly known as the Stark Law, and the state equivalents;
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended;
the Medicare civil money penalty and exclusion requirements;
the federal False Claims Act civil and criminal penalties and state equivalents; and
state physician gift bans and state and federal marketing expenditure disclosure laws.
If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.
Healthcare policy changes, including legislation reforming the United States healthcare system, may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, collectively, the ACA, enacted in March 2010, made changes that significantly impact the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and clinical laboratories. For example, beginning in 2013, each medical device manufacturer must pay a sales tax in an amount

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equal to 2.3% of the price for which such manufacturer sells its medical devices. In December 2015, Congress passed a two-year suspension of the medical device tax from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017. Absent further legislative action, the medical device tax would be reinstated January 1, 2018. The tax applies to our listed medical device products, which include the nCounter Dx Analysis System, Prosigna in vitro diagnostic kits and nCounter Elements reagents. The Budget Control Act of 2011, contained automatic spending cuts to the federal budget known as sequestration. As a result of sequestration, Medicare payments are reduced by 2% per year. For Prosigna this occurs through adjustment to the Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule. These or any future proposed or mandated reductions in payments may apply to some or all of the clinical laboratory tests that our customers use our technology to deliver to Medicare beneficiaries, and may indirectly reduce demand for our products.
Other significant measures contained in the ACA include coordination and promotion of research on comparative clinical effectiveness of different technologies and procedures, initiatives to revise Medicare payment methodologies, such as bundling of payments across the continuum of care by providers and physicians, and initiatives to promote quality indicators in payment methodologies. The ACA also includes significant new fraud and abuse measures, including required disclosures of financial arrangements with physician customers, lower thresholds for violations and increasing potential penalties for such violations. In addition, the ACA establishes an Independent Payment Advisory Board, or IPAB, to reduce the per capita rate of growth in Medicare spending. The IPAB has broad discretion to propose policies to reduce healthcare expenditures, which may have a negative impact on payment rates for services, including our tests. The IPAB proposals may impact payments for clinical laboratory services that our customers use our technology to deliver beginning in 2016 and for hospital services beginning in 2020, and may indirectly reduce demand for our products.
In addition to the ACA, the effect of which cannot presently be quantified, various healthcare reform proposals have also emerged from federal and state governments. Changes in healthcare policy, such as the creation of broad test utilization limits for diagnostic products in general or requirements that Medicare patients pay for portions of clinical laboratory tests or services received, could substantially impact the sales of our tests, increase costs and divert management’s attention from our business. Such co-payments by Medicare beneficiaries for laboratory services were discussed as possible cost savings for the Medicare program as part of the debt ceiling budget discussions in mid-2011 and may be enacted in the future. In addition, sales of our tests outside of the United States will subject us to foreign regulatory requirements, which may also change over time.
We cannot predict whether future healthcare initiatives, including potential repeal of the ACA in whole or in part by Congress following the election of President Trump, will be implemented at the federal or state level or in countries outside of the United States in which we may do business, or the effect any future legislation or regulation will have on us. Changes in the United States healthcare industry may result in decreased profits to us, lower reimbursements by payors for our products or reduced medical procedure volumes, all of which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property effectively, our business would be harmed.
We rely on patent protection as well as trademark, copyright, trade secret and other intellectual property rights protection and contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary technologies, all of which provide limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. As of March 31, 2017, we owned or licensed 15 issued U.S. patents and approximately 43 pending U.S. patent applications, including provisional and non-provisional filings. We also owned or licensed approximately 217 pending and granted counterpart applications worldwide, including 90 country-specific validations of 10 European patents. If we fail to protect our intellectual property, third parties may be able to compete more effectively against us and we may incur substantial litigation costs in our attempts to recover or restrict use of our intellectual property.
We cannot assure investors that any of our currently pending or future patent applications will result in issued patents, and we cannot predict how long it will take for such patents to be issued. Additionally, we cannot assure investors that our currently pending or future patent applications have or will be filed in all of our potential markets. Further, we cannot assure investors that other parties will not challenge any patents issued to us or that courts or regulatory agencies will hold our patents to be valid or enforceable. We cannot guarantee investors that we will be successful in defending challenges made against our patents and patent applications. Any successful third-party challenge to our patents could result in the third party or the unenforceability or

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invalidity of such patents.
The patent positions of life sciences companies can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions for which important legal principles remain unresolved. No consistent policy regarding the breadth of claims allowed in such companies’ patents has emerged to date in the United States. Furthermore, in the biotechnology field, courts frequently render opinions that may affect the patentability of certain inventions or discoveries, including opinions that may affect the patentability of methods for analyzing or comparing DNA.
In particular, the patent positions of companies engaged in development and commercialization of genomic diagnostic tests, like Prosigna, are particularly uncertain. Various courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, have recently rendered decisions that impact the scope of patentability of certain inventions or discoveries relating to genomic diagnostics. Specifically, these decisions stand for the proposition that patent claims that recite laws of nature (for example, the relationships between gene expression levels and the likelihood of risk of recurrence of cancer) are not themselves patentable unless those patent claims have sufficient additional features that provide practical assurance that the processes are genuine inventive applications of those laws rather than patent drafting efforts designed to monopolize the law of nature itself. What constitutes a “sufficient” additional feature is uncertain. Furthermore, in view of these decisions, in December 2014 the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, published revised guidelines for patent examiners to apply when examining process claims for patent eligibility. This guidance was updated by the USPTO in July 2015 and additional illustrative examples provided in May 2016. The guidance indicates that claims directed to a law of nature, a natural phenomenon, or an abstract idea that do not meet the eligibility requirements should be rejected as non‑statutory, patent ineligible subject matter. We cannot assure you that our patent portfolio will not be negatively impacted by the current uncertain state of the law, new court rulings or changes in guidance or procedures issued by the USPTO. From time to time, the U.S. Supreme Court, other federal courts, the U.S. Congress or the USPTO may change the standards of patentability and validity of patents within the genomic diagnostic space, and any such changes could have a negative impact on our business.
The laws of some non-U.S. countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending such rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business.
Changes in either the patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws in the United States or other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property. We cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be allowed or enforced in our patents or in third-party patents. For example:
We might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by each of our pending patent applications.
We might not have been the first to file patent applications for these inventions.
Others may independently develop similar or alternative products and technologies or duplicate any of our products and technologies.
It is possible that our pending patent applications will not result in issued patents, and even if they issue as patents, they may not provide a basis for commercially viable products, may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be challenged and invalidated by third parties.
We may not develop additional proprietary products and technologies that are patentable.
The patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business.
We apply for patents covering our products and technologies and uses thereof, as we deem appropriate. However, we may fail to apply for patents on important products and technologies in a timely fashion or at all.
In addition to pursuing patents on our technology, we take steps to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology by entering into confidentiality agreements and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, corporate partners and, when needed, our advisors. Such agreements may not be enforceable or may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure or other breaches

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of the agreements, and we may not be able to prevent such unauthorized disclosure. Monitoring unauthorized disclosure is difficult, and we do not know whether the steps we have taken to prevent such disclosure are, or will be, adequate. If we were to enforce a claim that a third party had illegally obtained and was using our trade secrets, it would be expensive and time consuming, and the outcome would be unpredictable. In addition, courts outside the United States may be less willing to protect trade secrets.
In addition, competitors could purchase our products and attempt to replicate some or all of the competitive advantages we derive from our development efforts, willfully infringe our intellectual property rights, design around our protected technology or develop their own competitive technologies that fall outside of our intellectual property rights. If our intellectual property is not adequately protected so as to protect our market against competitors’ products and methods, our competitive position could be adversely affected, as could our business.
We have not yet registered certain of our trademarks in all of our potential markets. If we apply to register these trademarks, our applications may not be allowed for registration, and our registered trademarks may not be maintained or enforced. In addition, opposition or cancellation proceedings may be filed against our trademark applications and registrations, and our trademarks may not survive such proceedings. If we do not secure registrations for our trademarks, we may encounter more difficulty in enforcing them against third parties than we otherwise would.
To the extent our intellectual property, including licensed intellectual property, offers inadequate protection, or is found to be invalid or unenforceable, we would be exposed to a greater risk of direct competition. If our intellectual property does not provide adequate protection against our competitors’ products, our competitive position could be adversely affected, as could our business. Both the patent application process and the process of managing patent disputes can be time consuming and expensive.
We depend on certain technologies that are licensed to us. We do not control these technologies and any loss of our rights to them could prevent us from selling our products.
We rely on licenses in order to be able to use various proprietary technologies that are material to our business, including our core digital molecular barcoding technology licensed from the Institute for Systems Biology, technology relating to Prosigna licensed from Bioclassifier, LLC and the intellectual property relating to a gene signature for lymphoma subtyping from the National Institutes of Health for use in our collaboration with Celgene Corporation. We do not own the patents that underlie these licenses. Our rights to use these technologies and employ the inventions claimed in the licensed patents are subject to the continuation of and compliance with the terms of those licenses.
We may need to license other technologies to commercialize future products. We may also need to negotiate licenses to patents and patent applications after launching any of our commercial products. Our business may suffer if the patents or patent applications are unavailable for license or if we are unable to enter into necessary licenses on acceptable terms.
In some cases, we do not control the prosecution, maintenance, or filing of the patents to which we hold licenses, or the enforcement of these patents against third parties. Some of our patents and patent applications were either acquired from another company who acquired those patents and patent applications from yet another company, or are licensed from a third party. Thus, these patents and patent applications are not written by us or our attorneys, and we did not have control over the drafting and prosecution. The former patent owners and our licensors might not have given the same attention to the drafting and prosecution of these patents and applications as we would have if we had been the owners of the patents and applications and had control over the drafting and prosecution. We cannot be certain that drafting or prosecution of the licensed patents and patent applications by the licensors have been or will be conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations or will result in valid and enforceable patents and other intellectual property rights.
Enforcement of our licensed patents or defense of any claims asserting the invalidity of these patents is often subject to the control or cooperation of our licensors. Certain of our licenses contain provisions that allow the licensor to terminate the license upon specific conditions. Therefore, our business may suffer if these licenses terminate, if the licensors fail to abide by the terms of the license or fail to prevent infringement by third parties or if the licensed patents or other rights are found to be invalid. Our rights under the licenses are subject to our continued compliance with the terms of the license, including the payment of royalties due under the license. Because of the complexity of our products and the patents we have licensed, determining the

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scope of the license and related royalty obligation can be difficult and can lead to disputes between us and the licensor. An unfavorable resolution of such a dispute could lead to an increase in the royalties payable pursuant to the license or termination of the license. If a licensor believed we were not paying the royalties due under the license or were otherwise not in compliance with the terms of the license, the licensor might attempt to revoke the license. If such an attempt were successful, we might be barred from producing and selling some or all of our products.
In addition, certain of the patents we have licensed relate to technology that was developed with U.S. government grants. Federal regulations impose certain domestic manufacturing requirements with respect to some of our products embodying these patents.
We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents and proprietary rights, to determine the scope, coverage and validity of others’ proprietary rights, or to defend against third-party claims of intellectual property infringement, any of which could be time-intensive and costly and may adversely impact our business or stock price.
We have received notices of claims of infringement and misappropriation or misuse of other parties’ proprietary rights in the past and may from time to time receive additional notices. Some of these claims may lead to litigation. We cannot assure investors that we will prevail in such actions, or that other actions alleging misappropriation or misuse by us of third-party trade secrets, infringement by us of third-party patents and trademarks or other rights, or the validity of our patents, trademarks or other rights, will not be asserted or prosecuted against us.
Litigation may be necessary for us to enforce our patent and proprietary rights or to determine the scope, coverage and validity of the proprietary rights of others. Litigation could result in substantial legal fees and could adversely affect the scope of our patent protection. The outcome of any litigation or other proceeding is inherently uncertain and might not be favorable to us, and we might not be able to obtain licenses to technology that we require. Even if such licenses are obtainable, they may not be available at a reasonable cost. We could therefore incur substantial costs related to royalty payments for licenses obtained from third parties, which could negatively affect our gross margins. Further, we could encounter delays in product introductions, or interruptions in product sales, as we develop alternative methods or products. In addition, if we resort to legal proceedings to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity, scope and coverage of the intellectual property or other proprietary rights of others, the proceedings could be burdensome and expensive, even if we were to prevail. Any litigation that may be necessary in the future could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.
As we move into new markets and applications for our products, incumbent participants in such markets may assert their patents and other proprietary rights against us as a means of slowing our entry into such markets or as a means to extract substantial license and royalty payments from us. In addition, competitors may develop their own versions of our tests in countries where we did not apply for patents, where our patents have not issued or where our intellectual property rights are not recognized and compete with us in those countries and markets. Our competitors and others may now and in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we currently have. In addition, future litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patents may provide little or no deterrence or protection. Therefore, our commercial success may depend in part on our non-infringement of the patents or proprietary rights of third parties. We are aware of a third party, Genomic Health, Inc., that has issued patents and pending patent applications in the United States, Europe and other jurisdictions that claim methods of using certain genes that are included in Prosigna. We believe that Prosigna does not infringe any valid issued claim. Numerous significant intellectual property issues have been litigated, and will likely continue to be litigated, between existing and new participants in our existing and targeted markets and competitors may assert that our products infringe their intellectual property rights as part of a business strategy to impede our successful entry into those markets. Third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. In addition, we may be unaware of pending third-party patent applications that relate to our technology and our competitors and others may have patents or may in the future obtain patents and claim that use of our products infringes these patents. We could incur substantial costs and divert the attention of our management and technical personnel in defending against any of these claims. Parties making claims against us may be able to obtain injunctive or other relief, which could block our ability to develop, commercialize and sell products, and could result in the award of substantial damages against us. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may be required to pay damages and obtain one or more licenses from third parties, or be prohibited from selling certain products. We may not be able to obtain these licenses at a reasonable cost, if at all. We could therefore incur substantial costs related to royalty payments

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for licenses obtained from third parties, which could negatively affect our gross margins. In addition, we could encounter delays in product introductions while we attempt to develop alternative methods or products to avoid infringing third-party patents or proprietary rights. Defense of any lawsuit or failure to obtain any of these licenses on favorable terms could prevent us from commercializing products, and the prohibition of sale of any of our products could materially affect our ability to grow and gain market acceptance for our products.
Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, during the course of this kind of litigation, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock.
In addition, our agreements with some of our suppliers, distributors, customers, collaborators and other entities with whom we do business require us to defend or indemnify these parties to the extent they become involved in infringement claims against us, including the claims described above. We could also voluntarily agree to defend or indemnify third parties in instances where we are not obligated to do so if we determine it would be important to our business relationships. If we are required or agree to defend or indemnify any of these third parties in connection with any infringement claims, we could incur significant costs and expenses that could adversely affect our business, operating results, or financial condition.
We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ former employers.
Many of our employees were previously employed at universities or other life sciences companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although no claims against us are currently pending, we or our employees may be subject to claims that these employees or we have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights. A loss of key research personnel work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize certain potential products, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
Our products contain third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products.
Our products contain software tools licensed by third-party authors under “open source” licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar products with less development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales.
Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our products to conditions we do not intend, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. Moreover, we cannot assure investors that our processes for controlling our use of open source software in our products will be effective. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open source software license, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue offering our products on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our products, to discontinue the sale of our products if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis, or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.

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We use third-party software that may be difficult to replace or cause errors or failures of our products that could lead to lost customers or harm to our reputation.
We use software licensed from third parties in our products. In the future, this software may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of this software could result in delays in the production of our products until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated, which could harm our business. In addition, any errors or defects in third-party software, or other third-party software failures could result in errors, defects or cause our products to fail, which could harm our business and be costly to correct. Many of these providers attempt to impose limitations on their liability for such errors, defects or failures, and if enforceable, we may have additional liability to our customers or third-party providers that could harm our reputation and increase our operating costs.
We will need to maintain our relationships with third-party software providers and to obtain software from such providers that does not contain any errors or defects. Any failure to do so could adversely impact our ability to deliver reliable products to our customers and could harm our results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
The price of our common stock may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
The trading price of our common stock has fluctuated and may continue to fluctuate substantially. The trading price of our common stock depends on a number of factors, including those described in this “Risk Factors” section, many of which are beyond our control and may not be related to our operating performance. These fluctuations could cause stockholders to lose all or part of their investment in our common stock. Factors that could cause fluctuations in the trading price of our common stock include the following:
actual or anticipated quarterly variation in our results of operations or the results of our competitors;
announcements by us or our competitors of new products, significant contracts, commercial relationships or capital commitments;
failure to obtain or delays in obtaining product approvals or clearances from the FDA or foreign regulators;
adverse regulatory or reimbursement announcements;
issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations for our stock;
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
commencement of, or our involvement in, litigation;
market conditions in the research and diagnostics markets;
manufacturing disruptions;
any future sales of our common stock or other securities;
any change to the composition of the board of directors or key personnel;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
general economic conditions and slow or negative growth of our markets; and
the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.
The stock market in general, and market prices for the securities of life sciences and diagnostic companies like ours in particular, have from time to time experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of the underlying companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In several recent situations where the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the stock. If any of our stockholders were to bring a lawsuit against us, the defense and disposition of the lawsuit could be costly and divert the time and attention of our management and harm our operating results.

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An active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained.
Although our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market, the market for our shares has demonstrated varying levels of trading activity and the current level of trading may not be sustained in the future. Purchases or sales of large blocks of our shares relative to the trading volume on a given day can have a disproportionate effect on the price of our common stock. The lack of an active market for our common stock or significant and rapid changes in the price of our common stock may impair investors’ ability to sell their shares at the time they wish to sell them or at a price that they consider reasonable, may reduce the fair market value of their shares and may impair our ability to raise capital.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research reports about our business, or if they issue an adverse opinion about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us issues an adverse opinion about our company, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Future sales of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
Our stock price could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock or the perception that these sales could occur. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.
Holders of approximately 3.4 million shares (including shares underlying outstanding warrants), or approximately 16%, of our outstanding shares as of March 31, 2017, have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering the sale of their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. We also register the offer and sale of all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans.
In addition, in the future, we may issue additional shares of common stock or other equity or debt securities convertible into common stock in connection with a financing, acquisition, litigation settlement, employee arrangements or otherwise. Any such future issuance could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and could cause our stock price to decline.
Our officers and directors, and their respective affiliates, own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exercise significant influence over matters subject to stockholder approval.
Our executive officers and directors together with their respective affiliates, own approximately 19% of our outstanding common stock as of March 31, 2017. Accordingly, our executive officers and directors together with their respective affiliates, will be able to exert significant influence over matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, as well as our management and affairs. This concentration of ownership could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in our control or otherwise discouraging a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of us, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our stock price and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove the board of directors or management.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware or Washington law could make an acquisition of us difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit our stock price.
Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change in our control or change in our management, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares, or transactions that our stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our stock. Among other things, the certificate of incorporation and bylaws:
permit the board of directors to issue up to 15,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate;

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provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors;
provide that all vacancies, including newly-created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;
divide the board of directors into three classes;
provide that a director may only be removed from the board of directors by the stockholders for cause;
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and may not be taken by written consent;
provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide notice in writing in a timely manner, and meet specific requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;
prevent cumulative voting rights (therefore allowing the holders of a plurality of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose);
provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or by the board of directors; and
provide that stockholders are permitted to amend the bylaws only upon receiving at least two-thirds of the total votes entitled to be cast by holders of all outstanding shares then entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.
In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder. Likewise, because our principal executive offices are located in Washington, the anti-takeover provisions of the Washington Business Corporation Act may apply to us under certain circumstances now or in the future. These provisions prohibit a “target corporation” from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any stockholder constituting an “acquiring person” for a period of five years following the date on which the stockholder became an “acquiring person.”
We are an “emerging growth company,” and any decision on our part to comply only with certain reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, enacted in April 2012, and, for as long as we continue to be an “emerging growth company,” we have chosen to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to have our independent registered public accounting firm audit our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an “emerging growth company” until December 31, 2018, although, if we have more than $1.0 billion in annual revenue, if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of June 30 of any year, or we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period before the end of that five-year period, we would cease to be an “emerging growth company” as of the following December 31. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result of these exemptions, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be lower and be more volatile.
As an “emerging growth company” the JOBS Act allows us to delay adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to public companies until such pronouncements are made applicable to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period under the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of issuers who are required to comply with the effective dates for new or revised accounting standards that are applicable to public companies, which may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

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Complying with the laws and regulations affecting public companies increases our costs and the demands on management and could harm our operating results.
As a public company, and particularly after we cease to be an “emerging growth company,” we incur and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and The NASDAQ Global Market impose numerous requirements on public companies, including requiring changes in corporate governance practices. Also, the Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and operating results. Our management and other personnel must devote a substantial amount of time to compliance with these laws and regulations. These burdens may increase as new legislation is passed and implemented, including any new requirements that the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 may impose on public companies. These requirements have increased and will likely continue to increase our legal, accounting, and financial compliance costs and have made and will continue to make some activities more time consuming and costly. For example, as a public company it is more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and in the future we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. These rules and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or our board committees or as executive officers.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting annually and the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures quarterly. In particular, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or Section 404, requires us to perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on, and our independent registered public accounting firm potentially to attest to, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. As an “emerging growth company,” we are availing ourselves of the exemption from the requirement that our independent registered public accounting firm attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404. However, we may no longer avail ourselves of this exemption when we cease to be an “emerging growth company.” When our independent registered public accounting firm is required to undertake an assessment of our internal control over financial reporting, the cost of our compliance with Section 404 will correspondingly increase. Our compliance with applicable provisions of Section 404 will require that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management time on compliance-related issues as we implement additional corporate governance practices and comply with reporting requirements. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 applicable to us in a timely manner, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.
Furthermore, investor perceptions of our company may suffer if deficiencies are found, and this could cause a decline in the market price of our stock. Irrespective of compliance with Section 404, any failure of our internal control over financial reporting could have a material adverse effect on our stated operating results and harm our reputation. If we are unable to implement these requirements effectively or efficiently, it could harm our operations, financial reporting, or financial results and could result in an adverse opinion on our internal control over financial reporting from our independent registered public accounting firm.    
The SEC adopted its final rule implementing Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act concerning conflict minerals in August 2012. The rule requires us to submit forms and reports to the SEC annually to disclose our determinations and due diligence measures. We have filed Form SD for the year ended December 31, 2015 and included a Conflict Minerals Report as an exhibit to such form. We do not directly purchase any conflict minerals. However, tracing these materials back to their country of origin is a complex task that required us to, among other things, survey suppliers in our supply chain to understand what programs they have in place for tracing the source of minerals supplied to us or used in products supplied to us and to ensure that reasonable due diligence has been performed. However, we have not determined how many, or if any, of our supply chain partners use conflict minerals. Moreover, we may face a limited pool of suppliers who can provide us “conflict-free” components, parts and manufactured products, and we may not be able to obtain conflict-free products or supplies in sufficient quantities or at competitive prices for our operations, and may be required to disclose that our products are not “conflict free.” This could adversely affect our reputation and may harm relationships with business partners and customers, and our stock price could suffer as a result.

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Risks Related to this Offering
We will have broad discretion over the use of the proceeds to us from this offering and may apply it to uses that do not improve our operating results or the value of your securities.
We will have broad discretion to use the net proceeds to us from this offering, and investors will be relying solely on the judgment of our board of directors and management regarding the application of these proceeds. Although we expect to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, we have not allocated these net proceeds for specific purposes. Investors will not have the opportunity, as part of their investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. Our use of the proceeds may not improve our operating results or increase the value of the securities being offered hereby.

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IMPORTANT INFORMATION REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain certain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements are identified by words such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “will,” “may,” “seek,” and other similar expressions. You should read these statements carefully because they discuss future expectations, contain projections of future results of operations or financial condition, or state other “forward-looking” information. These statements relate to our future plans, objectives, expectations, intentions and financial performance and the assumptions that underlie these statements. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
our expectations regarding our future operating results, including our expectations regarding instrument, consumable and total revenue, operating expenses and operating and net loss;
our ability to successfully commercialize Prosigna, our first in vitro diagnostic product;
our ability to realize the potential payments set forth in our collaboration agreements;
the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business and future product development plans;
the regulatory regime and our ability to secure and maintain regulatory clearance or approval or reimbursement for the clinical use of our products, domestically and internationally;
our strategic relationships, including with patent holders of our technologies, manufacturers and distributors of our products, collaboration partners and third parties who conduct our clinical studies;
our intellectual property position;
our expectations regarding the market size and growth potential for our business; and
our ability to sustain and manage growth, including our ability to develop new products and enter new markets.
All forward-looking statements are based on information available to us on the date of this prospectus supplement and we will not update any of the forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus supplement, except as required by law. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in this prospectus supplement. The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus supplement, and other written and oral forward-looking statements made by us from time to time, are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the following discussion and within the section of this prospectus supplement captioned “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page S-4 .

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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $ million (or $ million if the underwriter exercises its option to purchase additional shares of our common stock in full), after deducting the underwriting discount and the estimated expenses of this offering. We plan to use the net proceeds of this offering for general corporate purposes and working capital.
We cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received from this offering. In addition, the amount, allocation and timing of our actual expenditures will depend upon numerous factors, including market acceptance of our products; the cost and timing of establishing additional sales, marketing and distribution capabilities; the cost of our research and development activities; the cost and timing of regulatory clearances or approvals; the effect of competing technological and market developments; the nature and timing of any additional companion diagnostic development collaborations we may establish; the timing of sales of our common stock in this offering; and the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies, although we currently have no commitments or agreements relating to any of these types of transactions. Accordingly, we will have broad discretion in using these proceeds. Pending their uses, we plan to invest the net proceeds of this offering in short-term, interest-bearing, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES TO NON-U.S. HOLDERS
The following is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of our common stock to non-U.S. holders, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all the potential tax considerations relating thereto. This summary is based upon the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as of the date hereof. These authorities may be changed, possibly retroactively, so as to result in U.S. federal tax consequences different from those set forth below. We have not sought any ruling from the IRS with respect to the statements made and the conclusions reached in the following summary, and there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with such statements and conclusions.
This summary also does not address the tax considerations arising under the laws of any non-U.S., state or local jurisdiction or under U.S. federal gift and estate tax laws, except to the limited extent below. In addition, this discussion does not address tax considerations applicable to an investor's particular circumstances or to investors that may be subject to special tax rules, including, without limitation:
banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions;
persons subject to the alternative minimum tax or net investment income tax;
tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;
controlled foreign corporations, passive foreign investment companies and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid United States federal income tax;
brokers or dealers in securities or currencies;
traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings;
persons that own, or are deemed to own, more than five percent of our capital stock (except to the extent specifically set forth below);
certain former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;
entities or arrangements classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes and other pass-through entities (and investors therein);
persons who hold our common stock as a position in a hedging transaction, “straddle,” “conversion transaction” or other risk reduction transaction;
persons who hold or receive our common stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation;
persons who do not hold our common stock as a capital asset (within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code); or
persons deemed to sell our common stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code.
In addition, if a partnership or entity or arrangement classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our common stock, the tax treatment of a partner generally will depend on the status of the partner and upon the activities of the partnership. Accordingly, partnerships that hold our common stock, and partners in such partnerships, should consult their tax advisors.
You are urged to consult your tax advisor with respect to the application of the U.S. federal income tax laws to your particular situation, as well as any tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock arising under the U.S. federal income, estate or gift tax rules or under the laws of any state, local, non-U.S. or other taxing jurisdiction or under any applicable tax treaty.
Non-U.S. Holder Defined
For purposes of this discussion, you are a non-U.S. holder if you are a beneficial owner of our common stock that is not, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, a partnership or entity or arrangement classified as a partnership, or:
an individual citizen or resident of the United States;
a corporation or other entity taxable as a corporation created or organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States or any political subdivision thereof;
an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

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a trust (x) whose administration is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and which has one or more U.S. persons who have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (y) which has made an election to be treated as a U.S. person.
Distributions
We have not made any distributions on our common stock, and we do not plan to make any distributions for the foreseeable future. However, if we do make distributions on our common stock, those payments will constitute dividends for U.S. tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. To the extent those distributions exceed both our current and our accumulated earnings and profits, they will constitute a return of capital and will first reduce your basis in our common stock, but not below zero, and then will be treated as gain from the sale of stock.
Subject to the discussion below on effectively connected income, any dividend paid to you generally will be subject to U.S. withholding tax either at a rate of 30% of the gross amount of the dividend or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty. In order to receive a reduced treaty rate, you must provide us with an IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E or other appropriate version of IRS Form W-8 certifying qualification for the reduced rate. A non-U.S. holder of shares of our common stock eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax pursuant to an income tax treaty may be able to obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. If the non-U.S. holder holds the stock through a financial institution or other agent acting on the non-U.S. holder's behalf, the non-U.S. holder will be required to provide appropriate documentation to the agent, which then will be required to provide certification to us or our paying agent, either directly or through other intermediaries.
Dividends received by you that are effectively connected with your conduct of a U.S. trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by you in the United States) are generally exempt from such withholding tax. In order to obtain this exemption, you must provide us with an IRS Form W-8ECI properly certifying such exemption. Such effectively connected dividends, although not subject to withholding tax, are taxed at the same graduated rates applicable to U.S. persons, net of certain deductions and credits, subject to an applicable income tax treaty providing otherwise. In addition, if you are a corporate non-U.S. holder, dividends you receive that are effectively connected with your conduct of a U.S. trade or business may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.
Gain on Disposition of Common Stock
Subject to the discussion below regarding backup withholding and foreign accounts, you generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale or other disposition of our common stock unless:
the gain is effectively connected with your conduct of a U.S. trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the gain is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by you in the United States);
you are an individual who is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the calendar year in which the sale or disposition occurs and certain other conditions are met; or
our common stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest by reason of our status as a “United States real property holding corporation” for U.S. federal income tax purposes, or USRPHC, at any time within the shorter of the five-year period preceding your disposition of, or your holding period for, our common stock.
We believe that we are not currently and will not become a USRPHC. However, because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends on the fair market value of our U.S. real property relative to the fair market value of our other business assets, there can be no assurance that we will not become a USRPHC in the future. Even if we become a USRPHC, however, as long as our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market, such common stock will be treated as U.S. real property interests only if you actually or constructively hold more than five percent of such regularly traded common stock at any time during the applicable period described above.
If you are a non-U.S. holder described in the first bullet above, you will be required to pay tax on the net gain derived from the sale under regular graduated U.S. federal income tax rates, and corporate non-U.S. holders described in the first bullet above

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may be subject to the branch profits tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty. If you are an individual non-U.S. holder described in the second bullet above, you will be required to pay a flat 30% tax on the gain derived from the sale, which gain may be offset by U.S. source capital losses (even though you are not considered a resident of the United States, provided you have timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses). You should consult your tax advisor regarding any applicable income tax or other treaties that may provide for different rules.
Federal Estate Tax
Our common stock beneficially owned by an individual who is not a citizen or resident of the United States (as defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) at the time of death will generally be includable in the decedent's gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, unless an applicable estate tax treaty provides otherwise.
Backup Withholding and Information Reporting
Generally, we must report annually to the IRS the amount of dividends paid to you, your name and address, and the amount of tax withheld, if any. A similar report is sent to you. Pursuant to applicable income tax treaties or other agreements, the IRS may make these reports available to tax authorities in your country of residence.
Payments of dividends or of proceeds on the disposition of stock made to you may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding at a current rate of 28% unless you establish an exemption, for example by properly certifying your non-U.S. status on an IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E or another appropriate version of IRS Form W8. Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding and information reporting may apply if either we or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that you are a U.S. person.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax; rather, the U.S. federal income tax liability of persons subject to backup withholding will be reduced by the amount of tax withheld. If withholding results in an overpayment of taxes, a refund or credit may generally be obtained from the IRS, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS in a timely manner.
FATCA
Provisions commonly referred to as “FATCA”, impose a U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% on dividends on and gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock paid to a “foreign financial institution” (as specially defined under the FATCA rules), unless such institution enters into an agreement with the U.S. government to withhold on certain payments and to collect and provide to the U.S. tax authorities substantial information regarding the U.S. account holders of such institution (which includes certain equity and debt holders of such institution, as well as certain account holders that are foreign entities with U.S. owners) or otherwise establishes an exemption. FATCA also generally imposes a U.S. federal withholding tax of 30% on dividends on and gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock paid to a “non-financial foreign entity” (as specially defined for purposes of these rules) unless such entity provides the withholding agent with a certification identifying certain substantial direct and indirect U.S. owners of the entity, certifies that there are none or otherwise establishes an exemption. The withholding provisions under FATCA generally apply to dividends on our common stock, and under current transition rules, are expected to apply with respect to the gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock on or after January 1, 2019. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country may modify the requirements described in this paragraph. Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this legislation on their investment in our common stock.
The preceding discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations is for general information only. It is not tax advice. Each prospective investor should consult its own tax advisor regarding the particular U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of our common stock, including the consequences of any proposed change in applicable laws.

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UNDERWRITING
Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in an underwriting agreement between us and Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated, or Baird, we have agreed to sell to the underwriter, and the underwriter has agreed to purchase from us, at the public offering price less the underwriting discount set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, 2,750,000 shares of common stock.
We have agreed to indemnify the underwriter against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or to contribute to payments the underwriter may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.
Commissions and Discounts
The underwriter has agreed to purchase the shares of common stock from us at $ per share, which will result in $ ($ if the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full) of proceeds to us before expenses.
The shares of common stock offered hereby will be acquired by the underwriter for its own account and may be resold by the underwriter from time to time in one or more transactions to purchasers directly or through agents, or through brokers in brokerage transactions on the NASDAQ Global Market or to dealers, in negotiated transactions or in a combination of such methods of sale, at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, or at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices, subject to receipt of acceptance by the underwriter and subject to the underwriter's right to reject any order in whole or in part. Any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time. The difference between the price at which the underwriter purchases the shares of common stock and the price at which the underwriter resells such shares may be deemed underwriting compensation.
The expenses of the offering, not including the underwriting discount, are estimated at approximately $180,000 and are payable by us.
Option to Purchase Additional Shares
We have granted an option to the underwriter, exercisable for 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase up to 412,500 additional shares at the public offering price, less the underwriting discount.
No Sales of Similar Securities
We, our executive officers and our directors have agreed not to sell or transfer any common stock or securities convertible into, exchangeable for, exercisable for, or repayable with common stock, for 75 days after the date of this prospectus supplement without first obtaining Baird's written consent. Specifically, we and these other persons have agreed, with certain limited exceptions, not to directly or indirectly: (1) offer, sell, pledge, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, make any short sale, lend, or otherwise transfer or dispose of, or establish or increase any “put equivalent position” or liquidate or decrease any “call equivalent position” (each within the meaning of Section 16 of the Exchange Act) with respect to any shares of common stock, any options or warrants to purchase any shares of common stock, or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for or that represent the right to receive shares of common stock; (2) enter into any swap, forward contract, hedging transaction or other arrangement that transfers to another, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of common stock (whether any such transactions described in clause (1) or this clause (2) is to be settled by the delivery of shares of common stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise); or (3) in our case, file any registration statement relating to the offering of any shares of common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock, and in the case of our executive officers and directors, make any demand for or exercise any right with respect to the registration of any shares of common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock.
In our case, such restrictions shall not apply to:
the shares of our common stock to be sold in this offering;

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the grant of any awards (or the filing of a registration statement with the SEC on Form S-8 in respect of such awards) pursuant to our equity incentive plans under the terms of such plans in effect on the date hereof and described herein or pursuant to inducement grants made in accordance with NASDAQ Global Market rules;
the sale of shares of common stock to employees pursuant to our employee stock purchase plans;
any shares of common stock issued upon the exercise of options or warrants or the conversion of a security outstanding on the date of the underwriting agreement of which Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated has been advised in writing; or
the sale or issuance of shares of common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of common stock in connection with any (1) mergers, (2) acquisition of securities, businesses, property or other assets, (3) joint ventures, (4) strategic alliances or licensing, collaboration or similar agreements, (5) partnerships with experts or other talent to develop or provide content, (6) equipment leasing arrangements or (7) debt financing, provided that the aggregate number of shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable for common stock (on an as-converted or as-exercised basis, as the case may be) that we may sell or issue or agree to sell or issue as described in this bullet shall not exceed 10% of the number of shares of common stock outstanding immediately after the issuance and sale of the shares, and each recipient of any such shares or securities executes a lock-up agreement for the remainder of such 75-day restricted period.
In the case our directors and executive officers, such restrictions shall not apply to:
sales of shares of common stock or other securities acquired in open market transactions after the completion of this offering, provided that no filing under Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act or other public announcement shall be required or shall be made voluntarily in connection with subsequent sales of common stock or other securities acquired in such open market transactions;
transfers of shares of common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock (i) by bona fide gift, will or intestacy or (ii) to the spouse, domestic partner, parent, child or grandchild of the security holder, or to a trust formed for the benefit of the spouse, domestic partner, parent, child or grandchild of the security holder; provided that in the case of any such transfer each transferee or donee shall execute and deliver to Baird a lock up substantially similar lock up agreement; and provided, further, that no filing under Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act reporting a reduction in beneficial ownership of shares of common stock or other public announcement shall be required or shall be voluntarily made during the 75-day restricted period;
the transfer of shares of common stock or any security convertible into common stock upon a vesting event of our securities or upon the exercise of options or warrants to purchase our securities, in each case on a “cashless” or “net exercise” basis or to cover tax withholding obligations of the undersigned in connection with such vesting or exercise;
the establishment of a trading plan pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act for the transfer of shares of common stock; provided that such plan does not provide for the transfer of common stock during the 75-day restricted period and no public announcement or filing under the Exchange Act regarding the establishment of such plan shall be required of or made voluntarily by or on behalf of the security holder or us;
transfers of shares of common stock pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 trading plans in effect as of the date of the lock up agreement;
the transfer of shares of common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock pursuant to agreements under which we have the option to repurchase such shares or a right of first refusal with respect to transfers of such shares;
the transfer of shares of common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock that occurs by operation of law, such as pursuant to a qualified domestic order or in connection with a divorce settlement; or
the transfer of shares of common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock pursuant to a bona fide third party tender offer, merger, consolidation or other similar transaction made to all holders of the common stock involving a change of control of the company, provided that in the event that the tender offer, merger, consolidation or other such transaction is not completed, the common stock owned by the security holder shall remain subject to the restrictions contained in the lock up agreement.

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These lock-up restrictions apply to common stock and to securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for or repayable with common stock. It also applies to common stock owned nor or acquired later by the person executing the agreement or for which the person executing the agreement later acquires the power of disposition.
NASDAQ Global Market Listing
The common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “NSTG.”
Price Stabilization, Short Positions
Until the distribution of the shares is completed, SEC rules may limit underwriter and selling group members from bidding for and purchasing our common stock. However, the underwriter may engage in transactions that stabilize the price of the common stock, such as bids or purchases to peg, fix or maintain that price.
In connection with the offering, the underwriter may purchase and sell our common stock in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, purchases on the open market to cover positions created by short sales and stabilizing transactions. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriter of a greater number of shares than they are required to purchase in the offering. “Covered” short sales are sales made in an amount not greater than the underwriter's option to purchase additional shares described above. The underwriter may close out any covered short position by either exercising their option to purchase additional shares or purchasing shares in the open market. In determining the source of shares to close out the covered short position, the underwriter will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the option granted to them. “Naked” short sales are sales in excess of such option. The underwriter must close out any naked short position by purchasing shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriter is concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of our common stock in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of various bids for or purchases of shares of common stock made by the underwriter in the open market prior to the completion of the offering.
Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriter's purchases to cover short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. The underwriter may conduct these transactions on The NASDAQ Global Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.
Neither we nor the underwriter make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. In addition, neither we nor the underwriter make any representation that the underwriter will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.
Electronic Distribution
In connection with the offering, the underwriter or securities dealers may distribute prospectuses by electronic means, such as e-mail.
Other Relationships
The underwriter and its affiliates have engaged in, and may in the future engage in, investment banking and other commercial dealings in the ordinary course of business with us or our affiliates. They have received, or may in the future receive, customary fees and commissions for these transactions.
In addition, in the ordinary course of their business activities, the underwriter and its affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. The underwriter and its affiliates may also make investment

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recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada
Resale Restrictions
The distribution of the shares in Canada is being made only in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia on a private placement basis exempt from the requirement that we prepare and file a prospectus with the securities regulatory authorities in each province where trades of these shares are made. Any resale of the shares in Canada must be made under applicable securities laws which may vary depending on the relevant jurisdiction, and which may require resales to be made under available statutory exemptions or under a discretionary exemption granted by the applicable Canadian securities regulatory authority. Purchasers are advised to seek legal advice prior to any resale of the shares.
Representations of Canadian Purchasers
By purchasing the shares in Canada and accepting delivery of a purchase confirmation, a purchaser is representing to us and the dealer from whom the purchase confirmation is received that:
the purchaser is entitled under applicable provincial securities laws to purchase the securities without the benefit of a prospectus qualified under those securities laws as it is an “accredited investor” as defined under National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions ,
the purchaser is a “permitted client” as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations ,
where required by law, the purchaser is purchasing as principal and not as agent, and
the purchaser has reviewed the text above under Resale Restrictions.
Conflicts of Interest
Canadian purchasers are hereby notified that Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated is relying on the exemption set out in section 3A.3 or 3A.4, if applicable, of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts from having to provide certain conflict of interest disclosure in this document.
Statutory Rights of Action
Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if the prospectus (including any amendment thereto) such as this document contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser's province or territory. The purchaser of these shares in Canada should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser's province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.
Enforcement of Legal Rights
All of our directors and officers as well as the experts named herein may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible for Canadian purchasers to effect service of process within Canada upon us or those persons. All or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of those persons may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible to satisfy a judgment against us or those persons in Canada or to enforce a judgment obtained in Canadian courts against us or those persons outside of Canada.

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Taxation and Eligibility for Investment
Canadian purchasers of the shares should consult their own legal and tax advisors with respect to the tax consequences of an investment in the shares in their particular circumstances and about the eligibility of the shares for investment by the purchaser under relevant Canadian legislation.
Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area
In relating to each member state of the European Economic Area which has implemented the Prospectus Directive (each, a “Relevant Member State”), with effect from and including the date on which the Prospectus Directive is implemented in that Relevant Member State (the “Relevant Implementation Date”), no offer of any securities which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus supplement has been or will be made to the public in that Relevant Member State other than any offer where a prospectus has been or will be published in relation to such securities that has been approved by the competent authority in that Relevant Member State or, where appropriate, approved in another Relevant Member State and notified to the relevant competent authority in that Relevant Member State in accordance with the Prospectus Directive, except that with effect from and including the Relevant Implementation Date, an offer of such securities may be made to the public in that Relevant Member State:
to any legal entity which is a “qualified investor” as defined in the Prospectus Directive;
to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), as permitted under the Prospectus Directive, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives of the underwriters for any such offer; or
in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive;
provided that no such offer of securities shall require the Company or the underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 16 of the Prospectus Directive.
For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any securities in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe the securities, as the same may be varied in that Relevant Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Relevant Member State and the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC (and amendments thereto, including Directive 2010/73/EU, the “2010 PD Amending Directive”), and includes any relevant implementing measure in the Relevant Member State.
Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom
This prospectus supplement only being distributed to, and is only directed at, persons in the United Kingdom that are qualified investors within the meaning of Article 2(1)(e) of the Prospectus Directive that are also (i) investment professionals falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the “Order”) and/or (ii) high net worth entities falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order and other persons to whom it may lawfully be communicated (each such person being referred to as a “relevant person”).
This prospectus supplement and its contents are confidential and should not be distributed, published or reproduced (in whole or in part) or disclosed by recipients to any other persons in the United Kingdom. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this document or any of its contents.

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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, Seattle, Washington. Certain matters will be passed upon for Baird by Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, Menlo Park, California.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the Public Reference Room. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments to those reports, and other information that we file with or furnish to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can also be accessed free of charge from our website at http://www.nanostring.com. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Information contained on our website is not part of this prospectus supplement.
You should rely only on the information provided in, and incorporated by reference in, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the registration statement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. Our securities are not being offered in any state where the offer is not permitted. The information contained in documents that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the dates of those documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document that we have filed separately with the SEC. You should read the information incorporated by reference because it is an important part of this prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference the following information or documents that we have filed with the SEC (excluding those portions of any Form 8-K that are not deemed “filed” pursuant to the General Instructions of Form 8-K):
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 filed with the SEC on March 9, 2017 ;
our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2017 , filed on May 5, 2017 ;
the portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A (other than information furnished rather than filed) that are incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed on April 28, 2017;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 6, 2017, February 22, 2017, April 28, 2017, May 10, 2017 and May 18, 2017 (excluding information furnished thereunder), respectively; and
the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on June 21, 2013 pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the completion or termination of the offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC. Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement is deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement.
This prospectus supplement may contain information that updates, modifies or is contrary to information in one or more of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus supplement or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement is delivered, upon written or oral request, at no cost to the requester, a copy of any and all of the information that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.
Requests for such documents should be directed to:
NanoString Technologies, Inc.
Attn: Investor Relations
530 Fairview Avenue N.
Seattle, WA 98109
(206) 378-6266
You may also access the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement through our website at www.nanostring.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus supplement or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

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PROSPECTUS
 


NSTGLOGO.JPG
$100,000,000
NanoString Technologies, Inc.
By this prospectus, NanoString Technologies may offer, from time to time:
Common stock
Preferred stock
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Debt securities
 
NanoString Technologies may offer and sell from time to time, in one or more series or issuances and on terms that NanoString Technologies will determine at the time of the offering, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, up to an aggregate amount of $100,000,000.

We will provide specific terms of any offering in a supplement to this prospectus. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement as well as the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you purchase any of the securities offered hereby.

These securities may be offered and sold in the same offering or in separate offerings; to or through underwriters, dealers, and agents; or directly to purchasers. The names of any underwriters, dealers, or agents involved in the sale of our securities, their compensation and any over-allotment options held by them will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. See “Plan of Distribution.”

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “NSTG.” We will provide information in any applicable prospectus supplement regarding any listing of securities other than shares of our common stock on any securities exchange.
 
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.
 
INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES SIGNIFICANT RISKS. SEE “ RISK FACTORS ” BEGINNING ON PAGE 6 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT BEFORE INVESTING IN ANY SECURITIES.
 
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
The date of this prospectus is August 29, 2014.





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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf process, we may, from time to time, sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total amount of $100,000,000.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add to, update or change information contained in the prospectus and, accordingly, to the extent inconsistent, information in this prospectus is superseded by the information in the prospectus supplement.
The prospectus supplement to be attached to the front of this prospectus may describe, as applicable: the terms of the securities offered; the initial public offering price; the price paid for the securities; net proceeds; and the other specific terms related to the offering of the securities.
You should only rely on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or issuer free writing prospectus relating to a particular offering. No person has been authorized to give any information or make any representations in connection with this offering other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and any related issuer free writing prospectus in connection with the offering described herein and therein, and, if given or made, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by us. Neither this prospectus nor any prospectus supplement nor any related issuer free writing prospectus shall constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy offered securities in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offering or solicitation. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits.
You should read the entire prospectus and any prospectus supplement and any related issuer free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any related issuer free writing prospectus, before making an investment decision. Neither the delivery of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any issuer free writing prospectus nor any sale made hereunder shall under any circumstances imply that the information contained or incorporated by reference herein or in any prospectus supplement or issuer free writing prospectus is correct as of any date subsequent to the date hereof or of such prospectus supplement or issuer free writing prospectus, as applicable. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the applicable documents, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary description about us and our business highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated in this prospectus by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before buying securities in this offering. You should carefully read this entire prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, including each of the documents incorporated herein or therein by reference, before making an investment decision.
NanoString Technologies, Inc.
Overview
We develop, manufacture and sell robust, intuitive products that unlock scientifically valuable and clinically actionable genomic information from minute amounts of tissue. Our nCounter Analysis System directly profiles hundreds of molecules simultaneously using a novel barcoding technology that is powerful enough for use in research, yet simple enough for use in clinical laboratories worldwide. We market instruments and related consumables to researchers in academic, government, and biopharmaceutical laboratories for use in understanding fundamental biology and the molecular basis of disease and to clinical laboratories and medical centers for diagnostic use. We have an installed base of more than 220 systems, which our customers have used to publish more than 500 peer-reviewed papers. As researchers discover how genomic information can be used to improve clinical decision-making, these discoveries can be translated and validated as diagnostic tests based on our nCounter Elements reagents. In certain situations, we intend to translate their discoveries into in vitro diagnostic assays. For example, in September 2013, we received 510(k) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, to market in the United States a version of our first molecular diagnostic product, the Prosigna Breast Cancer Assay, or Prosigna, providing an assessment of a patient’s risk of recurrence for breast cancer.
The role of genomic information in research and medical practice is evolving rapidly. The advent of new technologies that sequence and digitally count discrete nucleic acids, commonly referred to as next generation sequencing, or NGS, is accelerating the discovery of the relationships between the genome and human disease. Researchers are applying this wealth of new information to identify biological “pathways,” which are networks of tens or hundreds of genes that act in concert to produce biological functions. Researchers then seek to translate this understanding of the genomic basis of disease into the development of diagnostic tools that can be used to profile an individual patient’s biological pathways as well as develop targeted drug therapies. Precise, simple and robust profiling of biological pathways presents both an analytical challenge for researchers and an opportunity to improve patient outcomes in the future.
Our nCounter Analysis System enables genomic analysis on a scale appropriate for pathway-based biology by digitally quantifying the activity of up to 800 genes simultaneously in a single minute tissue sample. The sensitivity and precision of our novel barcoding chemistry allows the measurement of subtle changes in genomic activity efficiently, which is essential in both research and diagnostics because tissue samples are often available only in very small quantities. This problem is especially acute in cancer research, which is typically conducted using biopsies that are often stored in a format known as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, or FFPE, which complicates subsequent analysis of genetic material. The nCounter Analysis System is an easy-to-use and flexible solution that allows researchers to efficiently test hypotheses across thousands of different samples. As a result, the nCounter Analysis System is particularly useful for discovering and validating networks of genes that characterize and help predict disease states, enabling the development of diagnostics and medicines designed specifically for treating patients with certain genomic profiles. Researchers may use nCounter to develop their own diagnostic tests based on our nCounter Elements reagents or we may selectively partner with them to translate their discoveries into in vitro diagnostic assays.
Prosigna, our first molecular diagnostic test, is based on a collection of 50 genes known as the PAM50 gene signature, which was discovered by several of our research customers. We secured an exclusive worldwide license to the PAM50 gene signature in 2010. Prosigna can provide a breast cancer patient and her physician with a subtype classification based on the fundamental biology of the patient’s tumor, as well as a prognostic score that predicts the probability of cancer recurrence over 10 years. Our goal is for physicians to use Prosigna to guide therapeutic decisions so that patients receive only therapeutic interventions from which they are likely to benefit. In September 2013, we received 510(k) clearance from the FDA to market in the United States a version of Prosigna providing an assessment of a patient’s risk of recurrence for breast cancer. In December 2013, we commercially launched Prosigna in the United States, and as of August 2014 had announced agreements with 11 laboratories, including four national diagnostic reference laboratories, three comprehensive cancer centers and two hospital systems to offer the Prosigna assay in the United States, with the earliest testing beginning during the first quarter of 2014. These laboratories collectively serve the pathology testing needs of a substantial portion of breast cancer patients throughout the United States. We expect additional clinical laboratories to adopt Prosigna in the future. In September 2012, we

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obtained CE Mark designation in the European Union for a version of Prosigna that provides an assessment of a patient’s risk of recurrence for breast cancer and the intrinsic subtype of the patient’s tumor. In February 2013, we commercially launched Prosigna in Europe and Israel. In May 2014, we received regulatory approval in Canada, and in August 2014 we received regulatory clearance in Australia.
In November 2013, we began offering a version of the nCounter Dx Analysis System to high-complexity, CLIA-certified laboratories for research and diagnostics purposes. This FLEX configuration of the nCounter Dx Analysis System provides clinical laboratories a single platform with the flexibility to support both clinical testing, by running Prosigna, and research, by processing translational research experiments using our custom CodeSets and panels. The nCounter Elements reagents provide further flexibility by allowing laboratories to develop their own Laboratory Developed Tests for gene expression, copy number variation and gene fusion signatures, which can be performed by a laboratory and may include genetic tests and other tests for rare conditions.
Prosigna is regulated as an in vitro diagnostic test and we distribute it as a kit for use on our nCounter Analysis System in clinical laboratories. We expect that our future in vitro diagnostic products will be regulated and distributed in a similar manner. This is in contrast to most complex genomic tests, which are currently regulated as services and are usually offered only by a limited number of specialized laboratories. The current centralized laboratory model for complex genomic testing can result in complicated logistics for the treating physician, including slower test result turnaround times and limited international access to tests as compared to local testing. In addition, most clinical laboratories cannot currently share in the revenue associated with offering patients complex genomic tests. We believe that our decentralized model will transform the current paradigm of complex genomic testing by allowing physicians worldwide to provide more comprehensive personalized diagnoses, broadening patient access, and increasing the degree to which clinical laboratories can profit by providing molecular diagnostic testing services.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated in Delaware in June 2003. Our principal executive offices are located at 530 Fairview Avenue, N., Suite 2000, Seattle, Washington 98109. Our telephone number is (206) 378-6266. Our website address is www.nanostring.com. Information contained on the website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and should not be considered to be part of this prospectus.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, as used in this prospectus, the terms “NanoString,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to NanoString Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries, NanoString Technologies Europe Limited, NanoString Technologies SAS, NanoString Technologies Asia Pacific Limited, NanoString Technologies International, Inc., NanoString Technologies GmbH and NanoString Technologies Singapore Pte Limited. We use “NanoString®,” “NanoString Technologies®,” “nCounter®,” “Molecules that Count®,” “Prosigna®,” “nCounter ElementsTM” and other marks as trademarks in the United States and other countries. This prospectus contains references to our trademarks as well as third-party trademarks. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use of third-party trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other entity.
The Securities We May Offer
We may offer up to $100,000,000 of common stock, preferred stock and depositary shares, warrants and debt securities in one or more offerings and in any combination. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. A prospectus supplement, which we will provide each time we offer securities, will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of these securities.
Common Stock
Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders, and there are no cumulative rights. Subject to any preferential rights of any outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably the dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of funds legally available therefor. If there is a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, holders of our common stock would be entitled to share in our assets remaining after the payment of liabilities and any preferential rights of any outstanding preferred stock.

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Preferred Stock and Depositary Shares
Under the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.
We may also issue fractional shares of preferred stock that will be represented by depositary shares and depositary receipts.
Each series of preferred stock, depositary shares or depositary receipts, if issued, will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock. We have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock, depositary shares or depositary receipts nor are any shares of our preferred stock, depositary shares or depositary receipts presently outstanding.
Warrants
We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities.
Debt Securities
We may offer secured or unsecured obligations in the form of one or more series of senior or subordinated debt. The senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities are together referred to in this prospectus as the “debt securities.” The subordinated debt securities generally will be entitled to payment only after payment of our senior debt. Senior debt generally includes all debt for money borrowed by us, except debt that is stated in the instrument governing the terms of that debt to be not senior to, or to have the same rank in right of payment as, or to be expressly junior to, the subordinated debt securities. We may issue debt securities that are convertible into shares of our common stock.
The senior and subordinated debt securities will be issued under separate indentures between us and a trustee. We have summarized the general features of the debt securities to be governed by the indentures. These indentures have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. We encourage you to read these indentures. Instructions on how you can get copies of these documents are provided under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Units
We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities issued by us as described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit.

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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013 and “Part II—Item 1A—Risk Factors” in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future and any prospectus supplement related to a particular offering. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, each prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and each prospectus supplement contain certain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The words “anticipate,” “expect,” “believe,” “goal,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate,” “may,” “will,” and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. Those statements appear in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference, particularly in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business,” and include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of the Company and management that are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions.
This prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement also contain statements that are based on the current expectations of our Company and management. You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.
Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein after we distribute this prospectus, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES
The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges on a historical basis for each of the periods indicated. You should read these ratios in connection with our consolidated financial statements, including the notes to those statements, and our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2014, incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 
Fiscal Year Ended December 31,
 
Six Months Ended
June 30, 2014
 
2009
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
2013
 
Ratio of earnings to fixed charges
 
 
 
 
 
The ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preference dividends represents the number of times that fixed charges and preference dividends are covered by earnings. Earnings consist of income or loss from continuing operations before income taxes and fixed charges, excluding preference dividends. Fixed charges consist of interest expensed and capitalized under capital leases, estimated interest expense within rental expense, and preference dividends. In the fiscal years ended December 31, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, and the six months ended June 30, 2014, earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges by $11.4 million, $17.1 million, $16.2 million, $25.2 million, $33.9 million and $25.5 million, respectively.
As of the date of this prospectus, we have no shares of preferred stock outstanding, and consequently, our ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred share dividends and ratio of earnings to fixed charges would be identical.

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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will use the net proceeds from the sale of securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include working capital, capital expenditures, other corporate expenses and acquisitions of complementary products, technologies or businesses. The timing and amount of our actual expenditures will be based on many factors, including cash flows from operations and the anticipated growth of our business. As a result, unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds of the offerings. Pending their ultimate use, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

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DESCRIPTION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK
The following is a summary of the rights of our capital stock. This summary is not complete. For more detailed information, please see our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, both filed as exhibits to our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2013, as filed on August 8, 2013.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 15,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
As of June 30, 2014, there were 18,101,051 shares of our common stock outstanding, held by approximately 62 stockholders of record, and no shares of our preferred stock outstanding. Our board of directors is authorized, without stockholder approval except as required by the listing standards of The NASDAQ Global Market, to issue additional shares of our capital stock.
Common Stock
Outstanding Shares
As of June 30, 2014, we had 18,101,051 shares of common stock outstanding. As of June 30, 2014, we had approximately 62 record holders of our common stock.
As of June 30, 2014, there were 595,904 shares of common stock subject to outstanding warrants and 3,336,548 shares of common stock underlying outstanding options.
Voting Rights
Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting rights. Because of this, the holders of a plurality of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. With respect to matters other than the election of directors, at any meeting of the stockholders at which a quorum is present or represented, the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at such meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders, except as otherwise required by law. The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at all meetings of the stockholders.
Dividends
Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of legally available funds.
Liquidation
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.
Rights and Preferences
Holders of common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate in the future.
Fully Paid and Nonassessable
All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued pursuant to this offering, when paid for, will be fully paid and nonassessable.

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Preferred Stock
Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 15,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, redemption rights, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing change in our control or other corporate action. We have no present plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.
Warrants
As of June 30, 2014, we had outstanding warrants entitling holders to purchase an aggregate of 595,904 shares of our common stock at a weighted-average exercise price of $8.87 per share.
These warrants have a net exercise provision under which their holders may, in lieu of payment of the exercise price in cash, surrender the warrant and receive a net amount of shares based on the fair market value of our stock at the time of exercise of the warrants after deduction of the aggregate exercise price. These warrants contain provisions for adjustment of the exercise price and number of shares issuable upon the exercise of warrants in the event of certain stock dividends, stock splits, reorganizations, reclassifications and consolidations.
Registration Rights
Under our investors’ rights agreement, the holders of approximately 7.0 million shares of common stock or their transferees, have the right to require us to register the offer and sale of their shares, or to include their shares in any registration statement we file, in each case as described below.
Demand Registration Rights
The holders of at least 60% of the shares having registration rights have the right to demand that we use best efforts to file a registration statement for the registration of the offer and sale of at least such number of shares with an anticipated offering proceeds in excess of $5.0 million. We are only obligated to file up to two registration statements in connection with the exercise of demand registration rights. These registration rights are subject to specified conditions and limitations, including the right of the underwriters to limit the number of shares included in any such registration under certain circumstances and our ability to defer the filing of a registration statement with respect to an exercise of such demand registration rights for up to 90 days under certain circumstances.
Form S-3 Registration Rights
The holders of at least 25% of the shares having registration rights have the right to demand that we file a registration statement on Form S-3 so long as the aggregate amount of shares to be offered and sold under such registration statement on Form S-3 is at least $1.0 million. We are not obligated to file any registration statements within 180 days of a registration statement that we propose. These registration rights are subject to specified conditions and limitations, including our ability to defer the filing of a registration statement with respect to an exercise of such Form S-3 registration rights for up to 90 days under certain circumstances.
Piggyback Registration Rights
If we propose to register the offer and sale of any of our securities under the Securities Act either for our own account or for the account of other stockholders, a stockholder with registration rights will have the right, subject to certain exceptions, to include their shares of common stock in the registration statement. These registration rights are subject to specified conditions and limitations, including the right of the underwriters to limit the number of shares included in any such registration statement under certain circumstances, but not below 25% of the total number of shares covered by the registration statement.

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Expenses of Registration
We will pay all expenses relating to any demand registrations, Form S-3 registrations and piggyback registrations, other than underwriting discounts and selling commissions.
Termination
The registration rights terminate upon the earliest of (1) July 1, 2018, (2) as to a given holder of registration rights, when such holder of registration rights can sell all of such holder’s registrable securities in a three month-period pursuant to Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act and (3) a change in control of us.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware and Washington Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Delaware Law
We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Section 203 generally prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless:
prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding (1) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
on or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Section 203 defines a business combination to include:
any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;
subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;
any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and
the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.
Washington Business Corporation Act
The laws of Washington, where our principal executive offices are located, impose restrictions on certain transactions between certain foreign corporations and significant stockholders. In particular, the Washington Business Corporation Act, or WBCA, prohibits a “target corporation,” with certain exceptions, from engaging in certain “significant business transactions” with a person or group of persons which beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting securities of the target corporation, an “acquiring person,” for a period of five years after such acquisition, unless the transaction or acquisition of shares is approved by a majority of the members of the target corporation’s board of directors prior to the time of acquisition. Such prohibited transactions may include, among other things:
any merger or consolidation with, disposition of assets to, or issuance or redemption of stock to or from, the acquiring person;
any termination of 5% or more of the employees of the target corporation as a result of the acquiring person’s acquisition of 10% or more of the shares; and
allowing the acquiring person to receive any disproportionate benefit as a stockholder.
After the five-year period, a significant business transaction may take place as long as it complies with certain fair price provisions of the statute or is approved at an annual or special meeting of stockholders.

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We will be considered a “target corporation” so long as our principal executive office is located in Washington, and: (1) a majority of our employees are residents of the state of Washington or we employ more than one thousand residents of the state of Washington; (2) a majority of our tangible assets, measured by market value, are located in the state of Washington or we have more than $50 million worth of tangible assets located in the state of Washington; and (3) any one of the following: (a) more than 10% of our stockholders of record are resident in the state of Washington; (b) more than 10% of our shares are owned of record by state residents; or (c) 1,000 or more of our stockholders of record are resident in the state.
If we meet the definition of a target corporation, the WBCA may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control.
Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Provisions of the certificate of incorporation and bylaws may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change in our control or change in our management, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares, or transactions that our stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Among other things, the certificate of incorporation and bylaws:
permit the board of directors to issue up to 15,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate, including the right to approve an acquisition or other change in our control;
provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors;
provide that all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;
divide the board of directors into three classes;
provide that a director may only be removed from the board of directors by the stockholders for cause;
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent;
provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide notice in writing in a timely manner, and also meet specific requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;
not provide for cumulative voting rights (therefore allowing the holders of a plurality of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose);
provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or by the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors; and
provide that stockholders are permitted to amend the bylaws only upon receiving at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of all outstanding shares then entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.
The amendment of any of these provisions requires approval by the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock, voting as a single class.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219.
Listing
Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “NSTG.”

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DESCRIPTION OF THE DEPOSITARY SHARES
General
At our option, we may elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we do elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, we will issue receipts for depositary shares and each of these depositary shares will represent a fraction of a share of a particular series of preferred stock, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fractional interest in shares of preferred stock underlying that depositary share, to all rights and preferences of the preferred stock underlying that depositary share. These rights may include dividend, voting, redemption and liquidation rights.
The shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares will be deposited with a bank or trust company selected by us to act as depositary, under a deposit agreement by and among us, the depositary and the holders of the depositary receipts. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares.
The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the depositary agreement. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.
The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus is not complete, and is subject to modification in any prospectus supplement for any issuance of depositary shares. You should refer to the forms of the deposit agreement, our certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designation that are, or will be, filed with the SEC for the applicable series of preferred stock.
Dividends
The depositary will distribute cash dividends or other cash distributions, if any, received in respect of the series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary receipts in proportion to the number of depositary shares owned by those holders on the relevant record date. The relevant record date for depositary shares will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock.
In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary receipts that are entitled to receive the distribution, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution. If this occurs, the depositary, with our approval, may adopt another method for the distribution, including selling the property and distributing the net proceeds to the holders.
Liquidation Preference
If a series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares has a liquidation preference, in the event of our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Redemption
If a series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares is subject to redemption, the depositary shares will be redeemed from the proceeds received by the depositary resulting from the redemption, in whole or in part, of the preferred stock held by the depositary. Whenever we redeem any preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem, as of the same redemption date, the number of depositary shares representing the preferred stock so redeemed. The depositary will mail the notice of redemption to the record holders of the depositary receipts promptly upon receiving the notice from us and not fewer than 20 or more than 60 days, unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, prior to the date fixed for redemption of the preferred stock.
Voting
Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of preferred stock are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts underlying the preferred stock. Each record holder of those depositary receipts on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the amount of preferred stock underlying that holder’s depositary shares. The record

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date for the depositary will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock. The depositary will, to the extent practicable, vote the preferred stock underlying the depositary shares in accordance with these instructions. We will agree to take all action that may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to vote the preferred stock in accordance with these instructions. The depositary will not vote the preferred stock to the extent that it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary receipts.
Withdrawal of Preferred Stock
Owners of depositary shares will be entitled to receive upon surrender of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary and payment of any unpaid amount due to the depositary, the number of whole shares of preferred stock underlying their depositary shares.
Partial shares of preferred stock will not be issued. Holders of preferred stock will not be entitled to deposit the shares under the deposit agreement or to receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares for the preferred stock.
Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement
The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may be amended by agreement between the depositary and us. However, any amendment which materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares, other than fee changes, will not be effective unless the amendment has been approved by at least a majority of the outstanding depositary shares. The deposit agreement may be terminated by the depositary or us only if:
all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed; or
there has been a final distribution of the preferred stock in connection with our dissolution and such distribution has been made to all the holders of depositary shares.
Charges of Depositary
We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangement. We will also pay charges of the depositary in connection with:
the initial deposit of the preferred stock;
the initial issuance of the depositary shares;
any redemption of the preferred stock; and
all withdrawals of preferred stock by owners of depositary shares.
Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and other specified charges as provided in the deposit agreement for their accounts. If these charges have not been paid, the depositary may:
refuse to transfer depositary shares;
withhold dividends and distributions; and
sell the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipt.
Miscellaneous
The depositary will forward to the holders of depositary receipts all reports and communications we deliver to the depositary that we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any reports and communications we deliver to the depositary as the holder of preferred stock.
Neither the depositary nor we will be liable if either the depositary or we are prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond the control of either the depositary or us in performing our respective obligations under the deposit agreement. Our obligations and the depositary’s obligations will be limited to the performance in good faith of our or the depositary’s respective duties under the deposit agreement. Neither the depositary nor we will be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. The depositary and we may rely on:
written advice of counsel or accountants;

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information provided by holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed in good faith to be competent to give such information; and
documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.
Resignation and Removal of Depositary
The depositary may resign at any time by delivering a notice to us. We may remove the depositary at any time. Any such resignation or removal will take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice for resignation or removal. The successor depositary must be a bank and trust company having its principal office in the United States of America and having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000.
Federal Income Tax Consequences
Owners of the depositary shares will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as if they were owners of the preferred stock underlying the depositary shares. As a result, owners will be entitled to take into account for U.S. federal income tax purposes and deductions to which they would be entitled if they were holders of such preferred stock. No gain or loss will be recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the withdrawal of preferred stock in exchange for depositary shares. The tax basis of each share of preferred stock to an exchanging owner of depositary shares will, upon such exchange, be the same as the aggregate tax basis of the depositary shares exchanged. The holding period for preferred stock in the hands of an exchanging owner of depositary shares will include the period during which such person owned such depositary shares.

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DESCRIPTION OF THE WARRANTS
We may issue warrants for the purchase of our preferred stock or common stock, or any combination thereof. Warrants may be issued independently or together with our preferred stock or common stock and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants. The warrant agent will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.
The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants to purchase our common stock or preferred stock will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:
the title of the warrants;
the offering price for the warrants, if any;
the aggregate number of warrants;
the designation and terms of the common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;
if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;
if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;
the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;
the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;
if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;
if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;
the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any;
the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;
any provisions with respect to the holder’s right to require us to repurchase the warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.
Holders of warrants will not be entitled:
to vote, consent or receive dividends;
receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or
exercise any rights as stockholders of us.
This summary of certain provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the terms of a particular series of warrants, you should refer to the prospectus supplement for that series of warrants and the warrant agreement for that particular series.

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DESCRIPTION OF THE DEBT SECURITIES
The debt securities may be either secured or unsecured and will either be our senior debt securities or our subordinated debt securities. The debt securities will be issued under one or more separate indentures between us and a trustee to be specified in an accompanying prospectus supplement. Senior debt securities will be issued under a senior indenture and subordinated debt securities will be issued under a subordinated indenture. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are called indentures in this description. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, will describe the terms of a particular series of debt securities.
The following is a summary of selected provisions and definitions of the indentures and debt securities to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The summary of selected provisions of the indentures and the debt securities appearing below is not complete and is subject to, and qualified entirely by reference to, all of the provisions of the applicable indenture and certificates evidencing the applicable debt securities. For additional information, you should look at the applicable indenture and the certificate evidencing the applicable debt security that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes the prospectus. In this description of the debt securities, the words “we,” “us,” or “our” refer only to NanoString Technologies, Inc. and not to any of our subsidiaries, unless we expressly state or the context otherwise requires.
The following description sets forth selected general terms and provisions of the applicable indenture and debt securities to which any prospectus supplement may relate. Other specific terms of the applicable indenture and debt securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any particular terms of the indenture or debt securities described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement.
General
Debt securities may be issued in separate series without limitation as to aggregate principal amount. We may specify a maximum aggregate principal amount for the debt securities of any series.
We are not limited as to the amount of debt securities we may issue under the indentures. Unless otherwise provided in a prospectus supplement, a series of debt securities may be reopened to issue additional debt securities of such series.
The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of debt securities will set forth:
whether the debt securities are senior or subordinated;
the offering price;
the title;
any limit on the aggregate principal amount;
the person who shall be entitled to receive interest, if other than the record holder on the record date;
the date or dates the principal will be payable;
the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, if any, the date from which interest will accrue, the interest payment dates and the regular record dates, or the method for calculating the dates and rates;
the place where payments may be made;
any mandatory or optional redemption provisions or sinking fund provisions and any applicable redemption or purchase prices associated with these provisions;
if issued other than in denominations of U.S. $1,000 or any multiple of U.S. $1,000, the denominations in which the debt securities shall be issuable;
if applicable, the method for determining how the principal, premium, if any, or interest will be calculated by reference to an index or formula;
if other than U.S. currency, the currency or currency units in which principal, premium, if any, or interest will be payable and whether we or a holder may elect payment to be made in a different currency;
the portion of the principal amount that will be payable upon acceleration of maturity, if other than the entire principal amount;
if the principal amount payable at stated maturity will not be determinable as of any date prior to stated maturity, the amount or method for determining the amount which will be deemed to be the principal amount;

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if applicable, whether the debt securities shall be subject to the defeasance provisions described below under “Satisfaction and discharge; defeasance” or such other defeasance provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement for the debt securities;
any conversion or exchange provisions;
whether the debt securities will be issuable in the form of a global security;
the deletion, addition or change in any event of default;
any change or modification to the subordination provisions applicable to the subordinated debt securities if different from those described below under “Subordinated debt securities;”
any deletion, addition or change in the covenants set forth in Article 10 of the indenture;
any paying agents, authenticating agents, security registrars or other agents for the debt securities, if other than the trustee;
any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities, including any provisions regarding the circumstances under which collateral may be released or substituted;
any provisions relating to guaranties for the securities and any circumstances under which there may be additional obligors;
any provisions granting special rights to holders when a specified event occurs;
any special tax provisions that apply to the debt securities;
with respect to the debt securities that do not bear interest, the dates for certain required reports to the applicable trustee;
any and all additional, eliminated or changed terms that will apply to the debt securities; and
any other terms of such debt securities.
Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be registered debt securities. Debt securities may be sold at a substantial discount below their stated principal amount, bearing no interest or interest at a rate which at time of issuance is below market rates. The U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities sold at a discount will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Exchange and Transfer
Debt securities may be transferred or exchanged at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us.
We will not impose a service charge for any transfer or exchange, but we may require holders to pay any tax or other governmental charges associated with any transfer or exchange.
In the event of any partial redemption of debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:
issue, register the transfer of, or exchange, any debt security of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or
register the transfer of or exchange any debt security of that series selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion being redeemed in part.
We will appoint the trustee as the initial security registrar. Any transfer agent, in addition to the security registrar initially designated by us, will be named in the prospectus supplement. We may designate additional transfer agents or change transfer agents or change the office of the transfer agent. However, we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.
Global Securities
The debt securities of any series may be represented, in whole or in part, by one or more global securities. Each global security will:
be registered in the name of a depositary, or its nominee, that we will identify in a prospectus supplement;
be deposited with the depositary or nominee or custodian; and
bear any required legends.

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No global security may be exchanged in whole or in part for debt securities registered in the name of any person other than the depositary or any nominee unless:
the depositary has notified us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or has ceased to be qualified to act as depositary;
an event of default is continuing with respect to the debt securities of the applicable series; or
any other circumstance described in a prospectus supplement has occurred permitting or requiring the issuance of any such security.
As long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, the depositary or nominee will be considered the sole owner and holder of the debt securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the indentures. Except in the above limited circumstances, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be:
entitled to have the debt securities registered in their names;
entitled to physical delivery of certificated debt securities; or
considered to be holders of those debt securities under the indenture.
Payments on a global security will be made to the depositary or its nominee as the holder of the global security. Some jurisdictions have laws that require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. These laws may impair the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a global security.
Institutions that have accounts with the depositary or its nominee are referred to as “participants.” Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to participants and to persons that may hold beneficial interests through participants. The depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the respective principal amounts of debt securities represented by the global security to the accounts of its participants.
Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on and effected through records maintained by the depositary, with respect to participants’ interests, or any participant, with respect to interests of persons held by participants on their behalf.
Payments, transfers and exchanges relating to beneficial interests in a global security will be subject to policies and procedures of the depositary. The depositary policies and procedures may change from time to time. Neither any trustee nor we will have any responsibility or liability for the depositary’s or any participant’s records with respect to beneficial interests in a global security.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, the provisions described in this paragraph will apply to the debt securities. Payment of interest on a debt security on any interest payment date will be made to the person in whose name the debt security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date. Payment on debt securities of a particular series will be payable at the office of a paying agent or paying agents designated by us. However, at our option, we may pay interest by mailing a check to the record holder. The trustee will be designated as our initial paying agent.
We may also name any other paying agents in a prospectus supplement. We may designate additional paying agents, change paying agents or change the office of any paying agent. However, we will be required to maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All moneys paid by us to a paying agent for payment on any debt security that remain unclaimed for a period ending the earlier of:
10 business days prior to the date the money would be turned over to the applicable state; or
at the end of two years after such payment was due,
will be repaid to us thereafter. The holder may look only to us for such payment.
No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of debt securities, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction, whether or not such transaction results in a change in control.

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Covenants
Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of debt securities, the debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of debt securities, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person (other than one of our subsidiaries), in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to, any person (other than a subsidiary of NanoString Technologies, Inc.), unless:
the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership, trust or other business entity;
the successor entity assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indentures;
immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and
certain other conditions specified in the indenture are met.
Events of Default
Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the following will be events of default for any series of debt securities under the indentures:
(1)
we fail to pay principal of or any premium on any debt security of that series when due;
(2)
we fail to pay any interest on any debt security of that series for 30 days after it becomes due;
(3)
we fail to deposit any sinking fund payment when due;
(4)
we fail to perform any other covenant in the indenture and such failure continues for 90 days after we are given the notice required in the indentures; and
(5)
certain events involving our bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization.
Additional or different events of default applicable to a series of debt securities may be described in a prospectus supplement. An event of default of one series of debt securities is not necessarily an event of default for any other series of debt securities.
The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of any default, except defaults in the payment of principal, premium, if any, interest, any sinking fund installment on, or with respect to any conversion right of, the debt securities of such series. However, the trustee must consider it to be in the interest of the holders of the debt securities of such series to withhold this notice.
Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, if an event of default, other than an event of default described in clause (5) above, shall occur and be continuing with respect to any series of debt securities, either the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding securities of that series may declare the principal amount and premium, if any, of the debt securities of that series, or if any debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities, such other amount as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, in each case together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, thereon, to be due and payable immediately.
Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, if an event of default described in clause (5) above shall occur, the principal amount and premium, if any, of all the debt securities of that series, or if any debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities, such other amount as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, in each case together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, thereon, will automatically become immediately due and payable. Any payment by us on the subordinated debt securities following any such acceleration will be subject to the subordination provisions described below under “Subordinated debt securities.”

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Notwithstanding the foregoing, each indenture will provide that we may, at our option, elect that the sole remedy for an event of default relating to our failure to comply with our obligations described under the section entitled “Reports” below or our failure to comply with the requirements of Section 314(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act will for the first 180 days after the occurrence of such an event of default consist exclusively of the right to receive additional interest on the relevant series of debt securities at an annual rate equal to (i) 0.25% of the principal amount of such series of debt securities for the first 90 days after the occurrence of such event of default and (ii) 0.50% of the principal amount of such series of debt securities from the 91st day to, and including, the 180th day after the occurrence of such event of default, which we call “additional interest.” If we so elect, the additional interest will accrue on all outstanding debt securities from and including the date on which such event of default first occurs until such violation is cured or waived and shall be payable on each relevant interest payment date to holders of record on the regular record date immediately preceding the interest payment date. On the 181st day after such event of default (if such violation is not cured or waived prior to such 181st day), the debt securities will be subject to acceleration as provided above. In the event we do not elect to pay additional interest upon any such event of default in accordance with this paragraph, the debt securities will be subject to acceleration as provided above.
In order to elect to pay the additional interest as the sole remedy during the first 180 days after the occurrence of any event of default relating to the failure to comply with the reporting obligations in accordance with the preceding paragraph, we must notify all holders of debt securities and the trustee and paying agent of such election prior to the close of business on the first business day following the date on which such event of default occurs. Upon our failure to timely give such notice or pay the additional interest, the debt securities will be immediately subject to acceleration as provided above.
After acceleration, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding securities of that series may, under certain circumstances, rescind and annul such acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, or other specified amounts or interest, have been cured or waived.
Other than the duty to act with the required care during an event of default, the trustee will not be obligated to exercise any of its rights or powers at the request of the holders unless the holders shall have offered to the trustee reasonable indemnity. Generally, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee.
A holder of debt securities of any series will not have any right to institute any proceeding under the indentures, or for the appointment of a receiver or a trustee, or for any other remedy under the indentures, unless:
(1)
the holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default with respect to the debt securities of that series;
(2)
the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made a written request and have offered reasonable indemnity to the trustee to institute the proceeding; and
(3)
the trustee has failed to institute the proceeding and has not received direction inconsistent with the original request from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series within 60 days after the original request.
Holders may, however, sue to enforce the payment of principal, premium or interest on any debt security on or after the due date or to enforce the right, if any, to convert any debt security (if the debt security is convertible) without following the procedures listed in (1) through (3) above.
We will furnish the trustee an annual statement from our officers as to whether or not we are in default in the performance of the conditions and covenants under the indenture and, if so, specifying all known defaults.
Modification and Waiver
Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the applicable trustee and we may make modifications and amendments to an indenture with the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding securities of each series affected by the modification or amendment.
We may also make modifications and amendments to the indentures for the benefit of holders without their consent, for certain purposes including, but not limited to:

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to evidence the succession of another person to NanoString Technologies, or successive successions, and the assumption by any such successor of the covenants of NanoString Technologies in the indentures in compliance with Article 8 of the indentures;
adding covenants;
adding events of default;
making certain changes to facilitate the issuance of the debt securities;
to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the indentures or more series of securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination (A) shall neither (i) apply to any security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the holder of any such security with respect to such provision or (B) shall become effective only when there is no such security outstanding;
securing the debt securities;
providing for guaranties of, or additional obligors on, the debt securities;
to establish the form or term of debt securities as permitted by Sections 2.1 and 3.1 of the indenture;
providing for a successor trustee or additional trustees;
conforming the indenture to the description of the securities set forth in this prospectus or the accompanying prospectus supplement;
curing any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency; provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interest of the holders in any material respect;
permitting or facilitating the defeasance and discharge of the debt securities;
make such other provisions in regard to matters or questions arising under the indentures or under any supplemental indentures as our board of directors may deem necessary or desirable, and which does not in each case adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of a series; and
comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualifications of the indentures under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”).
However, neither the trustee nor we may make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holder of each outstanding security of that series affected by the modification or amendment if such modification or amendment would:
change the stated maturity of the principal of, or any installment of principal or interest on, any debt security;
reduce the principal, premium, if any, or interest on any debt security or any amount payable upon redemption or repurchase, whether at our option or the option of any holder, or reduce the amount of any sinking fund payments;
reduce the principal of an original issue discount security or any other debt security payable on acceleration of maturity;
change the place of payment or the currency in which any debt security is payable;
impair the right to enforce any payment after the stated maturity or redemption date;
if subordinated debt securities, modify the subordination provisions in a materially adverse manner to the holders;
adversely affect the right to convert any debt security if the debt security is a convertible debt security; or
change the provisions in the indenture that relate to modifying or amending the indenture.
Satisfaction and Discharge; Defeasance
We may be discharged from our obligations on the debt securities, subject to limited exceptions, of any series that have matured or will mature or be redeemed within one year if we deposit enough money with the trustee to pay all the principal, interest and any premium due to the stated maturity date or redemption date of the debt securities.
Each indenture contains a provision that permits us to elect either or both of the following:
we may elect to be discharged from all of our obligations, subject to limited exceptions, with respect to any series of debt securities then outstanding. If we make this election, the holders of the debt securities of the series will not be entitled to the benefits of the indenture, except for the rights of holders to receive payments on debt securities or the registration of transfer and exchange of debt securities and replacement of lost, stolen or mutilated debt securities.

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we may elect to be released from our obligations under some or all of any financial or restrictive covenants applicable to the series of debt securities to which the election relates and from the consequences of an event of default resulting from a breach of those covenants.
To make either of the above elections, we must irrevocably deposit in trust with the trustee enough money to pay in full the principal, interest and premium on the debt securities. This amount may be made in cash and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, cash in the currency in which such series of securities is denominated and/or foreign government obligations. As a condition to either of the above elections, for debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars we must deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel that the holders of the debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the action.
With respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than United States dollars, “foreign government obligations” means:
direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued the currency in which such securities are denominated and for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged, or, with respect to debt securities of any series which are denominated in Euros, direct obligations of certain members of the European Union for the payment of which obligations the full faith and credit of such members is pledged, which in each case are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof; or
obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of a government described in the bullet above the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
Notices
Notices to holders will be given by mail to the addresses of the holders in the security register.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed under, the laws of the State of New York.
No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Stockholders
No incorporator, stockholder, employee, agent, officer, director or subsidiary of ours will have any liability for any obligations of ours, or because of the creation of any indebtedness under the debt securities, the indentures or supplemental indentures. The indentures provide that all such liability is expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of such indentures and the issuance of the debt securities.
Regarding the Trustee
The indentures limit the right of the trustee, should it become our creditor, to obtain payment of claims or secure its claims.
The trustee will be permitted to engage in certain other transactions with us. However, if the trustee acquires any conflicting interest, and there is a default under the debt securities of any series for which it is trustee, the trustee must eliminate the conflict or resign.
Subordinated Debt Securities
The following provisions will be applicable with respect to each series of subordinated debt securities, unless otherwise stated in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of subordinated debt securities.
The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities of any series is subordinated, to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture and the applicable prospectus supplement, to the prior payment in full, in cash or other payment satisfactory to the holders of senior debt, of all senior debt, including any senior debt securities.
Upon any distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding up, liquidation or reorganization, whether voluntary or involuntary, marshalling of assets, assignment for the benefit of creditors, or in bankruptcy, insolvency, receivership or other

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similar proceedings, payments on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment in full in cash or other payment satisfactory to holders of senior debt of all senior debt.
In the event of any acceleration of the subordinated debt securities of any series because of an event of default with respect to the subordinated debt securities of that series, holders of any senior debt would be entitled to payment in full in cash or other payment satisfactory to holders of senior debt of all senior debt before the holders of subordinated debt securities are entitled to receive any payment or distribution.
In addition, the subordinated debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries, including trade payables and lease obligations. This occurs because our right to receive any assets of our subsidiaries upon their liquidation or reorganization, and your right to participate in those assets, will be effectively subordinated to the claims of that subsidiary’s creditors, including trade creditors, except to the extent that we are recognized as a creditor of such subsidiary. If we are recognized as a creditor of that subsidiary, our claims would still be subordinate to any security interest in the assets of the subsidiary and any indebtedness of the subsidiary senior to us.
We are required to promptly notify holders of senior debt or their representatives under the subordinated indenture if payment of the subordinated debt securities is accelerated because of an event of default.
Under the subordinated indenture, we may also not make payment on the subordinated debt securities if:
a default in our obligations to pay principal, premium, if any, interest or other amounts on our senior debt occurs and the default continues beyond any applicable grace period, which we refer to as a payment default; or
any other default occurs and is continuing with respect to designated senior debt that permits holders of designated senior debt to accelerate its maturity, which we refer to as a non-payment default, and the trustee receives a payment blockage notice from us or some other person permitted to give the notice under the subordinated indenture.
We will resume payments on the subordinated debt securities:
in case of a payment default, when the default is cured or waived or ceases to exist, and
in case of a nonpayment default, the earlier of when the default is cured or waived or ceases to exist or 179 days after the receipt of the payment blockage notice.
No new payment blockage period may commence on the basis of a nonpayment default unless 365 days have elapsed from the effectiveness of the immediately prior payment blockage notice. No nonpayment default that existed or was continuing on the date of delivery of any payment blockage notice to the trustee shall be the basis for a subsequent payment blockage notice.
As a result of these subordination provisions, in the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution or reorganization, holders of senior debt may receive more, ratably, and holders of the subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than our other creditors. The subordination provisions will not prevent the occurrence of any event of default under the subordinated indenture.
The subordination provisions will not apply to payments from money or government obligations held in trust by the trustee for the payment of principal, interest and premium, if any, on subordinated debt securities pursuant to the provisions described under the section entitled “Satisfaction and discharge; defeasance,” if the subordination provisions were not violated at the time the money or government obligations were deposited into trust.
If the trustee or any holder receives any payment that should not have been made to them in contravention of subordination provisions before all senior debt is paid in full in cash or other payment satisfactory to holders of senior debt, then such payment will be held in trust for the holders of senior debt.
Senior debt securities will constitute senior debt under the subordinated indenture.
Additional or different subordination provisions may be described in a prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of debt securities.

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Definitions
“Designated senior debt” means our obligations under any particular senior debt in which the instrument creating or evidencing the same or the assumption or guarantee thereof, or related agreements or documents to which we are a party, expressly provides that such indebtedness shall be designated senior debt for purposes of the subordinated indenture. The instrument, agreement or other document evidencing any designated senior debt may place limitations and conditions on the right of such senior debt to exercise the rights of designated senior debt.
“Indebtedness” means the following, whether absolute or contingent, secured or unsecured, due or to become due, outstanding on the date of the indenture for such series of securities or thereafter created, incurred or assumed:
our indebtedness evidenced by a credit or loan agreement, note, bond, debenture or other written obligation;
all of our obligations for money borrowed;
all of our obligations evidenced by a note or similar instrument given in connection with the acquisition of any businesses, properties or assets of any kind,
our obligations:
as lessee under leases required to be capitalized on the balance sheet of the lessee under generally accepted accounting principles, or
as lessee under leases for facilities, capital equipment or related assets, whether or not capitalized, entered into or leased for financing purposes;
all of our obligations under interest rate and currency swaps, caps, floors, collars, hedge agreements, forward contracts or similar agreements or arrangements;
all of our obligations with respect to letters of credit, bankers’ acceptances and similar facilities, including reimbursement obligations with respect to the foregoing;
all of our obligations issued or assumed as the deferred purchase price of property or services, but excluding trade accounts payable and accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business;
all obligations of the type referred to in the above clauses of another person, the payment of which, in either case, we have assumed or guaranteed, for which we are responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, jointly or severally, as obligor, guarantor or otherwise, or which are secured by a lien on our property; and
renewals, extensions, modifications, replacements, restatements and refundings of, or any indebtedness or obligation issued in exchange for, any such indebtedness or obligation described in the above clauses of this definition.
“Senior debt” means the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, including all interest accruing subsequent to the commencement of any bankruptcy or similar proceeding, whether or not a claim for post-petition interest is allowable as a claim in any such proceeding, and rent payable on or in connection with, and all fees and other amounts payable in connection with, our indebtedness. However, senior debt shall not include:
any debt or obligation if its terms or the terms of the instrument under which or pursuant to which it is issued expressly provide that it shall not be senior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities or expressly provide that such indebtedness is on the same basis or “junior” to the subordinated debt securities; or
debt to any of our subsidiaries, a majority of the voting stock of which is owned, directly or indirectly, by us.
“Subsidiary” means a corporation more than 50% of the outstanding voting stock of which is owned, directly or indirectly, by us or by one or more of our other subsidiaries or by a combination of us and our other subsidiaries. For purposes of this definition, “voting stock” means stock or other similar interests which ordinarily has or have voting power for the election of directors, or persons performing similar functions, whether at all times or only so long as no senior class of stock or other interests has or have such voting power by reason of any contingency.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus (1) to or through underwriters or dealers, (2) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, (3) through agents, or (4) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices, or negotiated prices. The prospectus supplement will include the following information:
the terms of the offering;
the names of any underwriters or agents;
the name or names of any managing underwriter or underwriters;
the purchase price of the securities;
the net proceeds from the sale of the securities;
any delayed delivery arrangements;
any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;
any initial public offering price;
any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
any commissions paid to agents.
We may issue to the holders of our common stock on a pro rata basis for no consideration, subscription rights to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock. These subscription rights may or may not be transferable by stockholders. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of any offering of our common or preferred stock through the issuance of subscription rights, including the terms of the subscription rights offering, the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights and, if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement entered into by us in connection with the offering of common or preferred stock through the issuance of subscription rights.
Sale through Underwriters or Dealers
If underwriters are used in the sale, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account, including through underwriting, purchase, security lending or repurchase agreements with us. The underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. Underwriters may sell the securities in order to facilitate transactions in any of our other securities (described in this prospectus or otherwise), including other public or private transactions and short sales. Underwriters may offer securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the principal underwriters the respective amount of securities underwritten, the nature of the obligation of the underwriters to take the securities and the nature of any material relationship between an underwriter and us.
If dealers are used in the sale of securities offered through this prospectus, we will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction.
Direct Sales and Sales through Agents
We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. Such securities may also be sold through agents designated from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities and will describe any commissions payable to the agent by us. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.
We may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. The terms of any such sales will be described in the prospectus supplement.

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Delayed Delivery Contracts
If the prospectus supplement indicates, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts. These contracts would provide for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts would be subject only to those conditions described in the prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.
Market Making, Stabilization and Other Transactions
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, each series of offered securities will be a new issue and will have no established trading market. We may elect to list any series of offered securities on an exchange. Any underwriters that we use in the sale of offered securities may make a market in such securities, but may discontinue such market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the securities will have a liquid trading market.
Any underwriter may also engage in stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 104 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the underlying security in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions.
Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters may, if they commence these transactions, discontinue them at any time.
Derivative Transactions and Hedging
We, the underwriters or other agents may engage in derivative transactions involving the securities. These derivatives may consist of short sale transactions and other hedging activities. The underwriters or agents may acquire a long or short position in the securities, hold or resell securities acquired and purchase options or futures on the securities and other derivative instruments with returns linked to or related to changes in the price of the securities. In order to facilitate these derivative transactions, we may enter into security lending or repurchase agreements with the underwriters or agents. The underwriters or agents may effect the derivative transactions through sales of the securities to the public, including short sales, or by lending the securities in order to facilitate short sale transactions by others. The underwriters or agents may also use the securities purchased or borrowed from us or others (or, in the case of derivatives, securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives) to directly or indirectly settle sales of the securities or close out any related open borrowings of the securities.
Electronic Auctions
We may also make sales through the Internet or through other electronic means. Since we may from time to time elect to offer securities directly to the public, with or without the involvement of agents, underwriters or dealers, utilizing the Internet or other forms of electronic bidding or ordering systems for the pricing and allocation of such securities, you should pay particular attention to the description of that system we will provide in a prospectus supplement.
Such electronic system may allow bidders to directly participate, through electronic access to an auction site, by submitting conditional offers to buy that are subject to acceptance by us, and which may directly affect the price or other terms and conditions at which such securities are sold. These bidding or ordering systems may present to each bidder, on a so-called “real-time” basis, relevant information to assist in making a bid, such as the clearing spread at which the offering would be sold, based on the bids submitted, and whether a bidder’s individual bids would be accepted, prorated or rejected. For example, in the case of a debt security, the clearing spread could be indicated as a number of “basis points” above an index treasury note. Of course, many pricing methods can and may also be used.
Upon completion of such an electronic auction process, securities will be allocated based on prices bid, terms of bid or other factors. The final offering price at which securities would be sold and the allocation of securities among bidders would be based in whole or in part on the results of the Internet or other electronic bidding process or auction.

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General Information
Agents, underwriters, and dealers may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification by us against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, Seattle, Washington. Investment funds associated with Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation hold shares of our capital stock equal to 7,593 shares of our common stock, which represent less than 1.0% of our outstanding shares of common stock.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the Public Reference Room. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments to those reports, and other information that we file with or furnish to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can also be accessed free of charge through the Internet. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 relating to the offering of these securities. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement, at prescribed rates, from the SEC at the address listed above. The registration statement and the documents referred to below under “Incorporation by Reference” are also available on our Internet website, www.nanostring.com. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this prospectus.

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus certain information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below that we have previously filed with the SEC (excluding any portions of any Form 8-K that are not deemed “filed” pursuant to the General Instructions of Form 8-K):
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013, filed on March 27, 2014;
our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31 and June 30, 2014, filed on May 15 and August 8, 2014, respectively;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 13, April 7, May 1, June 2, June 3, July 14, July 24 (as amended on July 31), August 7 and August 27, 2014, respectively; and
the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on June 21, 2013 pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the completion or termination of the offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC. Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus is deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement.
This prospectus may contain information that updates, modifies or is contrary to information in one or more of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, at no cost to the requester, a copy of any and all of the information that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
Requests for such documents should be directed to:
NanoString Technologies, Inc.
Attn: Investor Relations
530 Fairview Avenue, N., Suite 2000
Seattle, WA 98109
(206) 378-6266
You may also access the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus through our website at www.nanostring.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

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Common Stock



2,750,000 Shares

LOGO_2017.JPG
 
Prospectus Supplement
 

Baird
 

, 2017